Lord Alfred Tennyson

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Alfred, Lord


6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892

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Tennyson in America



is the study of a poet who embodies, as does no other, the

qualities which we think of as especially characteristic of

the mid-nineteenth century. By their reaction to Tenny-

son, American poets and critics of the period may be rather

clearly divided into those who liked best the poetry of the

eighteenth century and those who preferred the poetry of

their own time. Again and again in the eighteen-forties

and fifties, Americans referred to Tennyson as the spokes-

man of a "new poetry." This fact, in itself, makes the study

of Tennyson's American reputation a significant chapter

in the history of Anglo-American literary relations.

Another important fact, which has been consistently

ignored by scholars of English and American literature and

which the study of Tennyson's American reputation illus-

trates, is the influence which American criticism has had

upon the careers of leading English literary figures. This

influence can be traced distinctly in the work of Carlyle,

Elizabeth Barrett, Macaulay, Tennyson, and others. Con-

cerning the popularity of Macaulay in America, the Lon-

don Morning Chronicle wrote on August 27, 1853: "We

owe much to America. Not content with charming us with

the works of her native genius, she teaches us also to ap-

preciate our own. She steps in between the timidity of a

British author and the fastidiousness of the British public,

and using her 'good offices' brings both parties to a friendly

understanding." This British debt to America is shown

nowhere more distinctly than in the career of Tennyson.



The general assumption that an English author's repu-

tation in America was a duplicate of that in his own coun-

try is strikingly disproved by the course of Tennyson's

American fame. America accepted Tennyson much earlier

than did his own country. In the eighteen-thirties Ameri-

cans who knew his poems were unanimously praising

them while the leading British journals were subjecting

Tennyson to one of the bitterest attacks in the history of

literary criticism. It was through the "good offices" of

Americans that Tennyson was persuaded, in spite of the

British censure, to venture into print again in 1842. Both

the Poems of 1842 and Tennyson's next work, The Prin-

cess^ received greater praise in America than in England.

In their acclamation of The Princess^ American periodicals

directly reprimanded the British for failure to under-

stand so excellent a work. With the coming of In Me-

moriam, American critics again exhibited their inde-

pendence of British criticism. Many disliked the poem,

and they said so, in the face of England's first whole-

hearted approval of Tennyson. The peculiar reception

given the peculiar poem, "Maud," in America is another

example of originality in criticism. The reputation of Ten-

nyson in this country through 1858 offers evidence of an

almost unbelievable independence in American literary

criticism at the time.


Preface vii

Foreword xi

I. Before the Poems of 1842 3

II. The Reception of the Poems of 1842 36

III. Rising Fame: The Princess 57

IV. Rising Fame: In Memoriam 74

V. The Poet of the Age 90

VI. The Divided Reaction to Maud, and Other

Poems 129

Conclusion: A Look Ahead 147

Appendix A. American Editions of Tennyson's

Poems, 1827-1858 153

Appendix B. Tennyson Items in American

Literary Annuals and Gift-books, 1827-1858 163

Appendix C. Reviews of Tennyson's Poems in

American Magazines and Newspapers, 1827-

1858 167

Bibliography 185

Notes 201

Index 251



Chapter I



early poetry more by the satiric and entertaining reviews

of it than by the poems themselves. Many read the reviews;

few read the poems. There is some justification for the con-

jecture that the American public, given the choice, would

not have done likewise; but that theory will have to remain

conjectural. Few Americans had an opportunity to read

Tennyson before the first American edition of his poems

in 1842.

Probably no copy of Alfred Tennyson's first book, Poems

by Two. Brothers (dated 1827, published December, 1826),

written in collaboration with his brother Charles, reached

America before Tennyson's fame became firmly established

in the eighteen-fifties. 1 It is entirely possible that no printed

reference to the book appeared in an American publication

before 1842. 2 Written anonymously by two boys, both un-

der twenty, and published by a firm of provincial booksell-

ers in Louth, Lincolnshire, the book attracted little atten-

tion in its own country. The only one of three notices long

enough to be called a review is a twenty-eight line paragraph

in the Gentleman's Magazine for June, 1827. Booksellers'

newspaper advertisements show that copies of the Gentle-

man's Magazine were reaching America as early as 1827, but

this paragraph could not be expected to cause any comment.

Because Edgar Allan Poe quoted in the preface to his

Tamerlane and Other Poems the same sentence from Mar-


tial which the Tennysons quoted upon the title page of

their book, some biographers of Poe have suggested the

possibility that Poe saw Poems by Two Brothers before

publishing his first tiny booklet. 3 It seems certain, how-

ever, that such was not the case; evidence to support the

possibility is slight. 4

More plausible is the suggestion that Fanny Kemble may

have brought with her a copy of Poems by Two Brothers

when she came to America in September, 1832. Her brother

John had given her a copy, and she had become already one

of the most ardent of Tennysonians. During her stay in

America, she played a significant part in making Tennyson

known. Often she read and praised to those about her the

Poems of 1833, which a friend had sent to her from London,

but there is no direct evidence that she brought her highly

prized copy of Poems by Two Brothers to America. 5

Tennyson's second published work was the poem Tim-

buctoo, which won the Chancellor's Medal at Cambridge

University in 1829. It was published, along with other

Cambridge University prize poems, in Prolusiones Aca-

demicae of the same year, and a very few copies of the poem

were published separately. 6 The Boston Athenaeum ac-

quired its copy of Prolusiones in 1847. 7 Probably no copy

of Timbuctoo reached America any earlier. The brief but

remarkably eulogistic review which it received in the Lon-

don weekly Athenaeum seems to have attracted no notice

in this country. 8

Tennyson's next literary ventures were his two small vol-

umes: Poems , Chiefly Lyrical (1830) and Poems (dated

1833, published December, 1832). It was upon these two

volumes that Tennyson's fame, both in England and Amer-

ica, rested until 1842. The editions were small, and since

Tennyson took steps to withdraw them from circulation

when they were ridiculed by the critics, they had become

scarce by the late thirties.


Certainly only a few copies of these poems came to Amer-

ica, 9 but, also certainly, there was a demand for them among

the few literati who had seen them. Professor William J.

Rolfe's statement that it is doubtful whether a dozen copies

had crossed the Atlantic by 1842 is reasonable, and his

further statement, as late as 1898, that neither of the vol-

umes "is to be found in any of our great libraries," though

not strictly accurate, is indicative. 10 James Freeman Clarke

wrote in his Louisville, Kentucky, magazine, the Western

Messenger, in December, 1836, that having borrowed a

copy of Poems, Chiefly Lyrical, "we copied it half off into

our common place book; as no other copy could be found

in any book store." James Aldrich, editor with Park Ben-

jamin of the New World, having tried often to find a copy,

wrote in 1840 in desperation to his friend, F. W. Tappan,

"If you chance to see in London a book with this title 'Po-

ems, Chiefly Lyrical' by Alfred Tennyson, I pray you buy it

for me at any price." 1X The 1833 volume also was sought

after. Unable to find a copy for sale, James Russell Lowell

borrowed Emerson's in 1838 or 1839 12 and set himself the

task of copying the entire volume page by page. Making no

selection, he began at the beginning and copied the poems,

as they came, to page 38, where he broke off in the middle

of a stanza of "The Miller's Daughter." 13 Although the

manuscript shows little sign of use, probably it was passed

about among Lowell's associates. It seems that reading the

poems from manuscript was not uncommon among early

American Tennyson admirers.


The American recognition of Tennyson had its source

in the Harvard College group of writers. Nearly every step

of advancement in his fame before 1842 can be traced to

a member of the so-called Transcendental School or to


another who received his or her inspiration in Cambridge.

Although he could never make up his mind about Tenny-

son and never praised him superlatively, Ralph Waldo

Emerson in these early years did more than any other single

person to make Tennyson known in America. Emerson

owned a copy of Poems, Chiefly Lyrical as early as De-

cember, 1831, 14 and when in 1833 he visited England, he

brought back with him a copy of the 1833 Poems. 15 Lowell

and other Harvard men first read Tennyson's poems in

these books, and with that reading their enthusiasm for

Tennyson began. 16 What seems to be the earliest Ameri-

can review of Tennyson was written for the transcendental

Western Messenger by James Freeman Clarke, graduate of

Harvard and personal friend of Emerson. 17 Transcendental-

ist John Sullivan Dwight wrote for the Christian Examiner

the earliest full and comprehensive review of both of Tenny-

son's volumes, and he borrowed the two books, and prob-

ably the inspiration for the review, from Emerson. 18 Henry

Wadsworth Longfellow, Margaret Fuller, Thomas Went-

worth Higginson, and Sophia Peabody, who around 1839

made a drawing of the "Lady of Shalott," one of the earliest

illustrations of Tennyson, 19 were others of the group who

early admired Tennyson.

Edward Everett Hale, writing years later, reminisced in-

terestingly if vaguely concerning the beginning of Tenny-

son's fame at Harvard:

I cannot remember — I wish I could — whether it were Long-

fellow or Emerson who introduced Tennyson in college. That

first little, thin volume of Tennyson's poems, with "airy, fairy

Lillian [sic]" and the rest, was printed in London in 1830. It

was not at once reprinted in America. It was Emerson's copy

which somebody borrowed in Cambridge and which we passed

reverently from hand to hand. Everybody who had any sense

knew that a great poet had been born as well as we know it

now. And it is always pleasant to me to remember that those

first poems of his were handed about in manuscript as a new


ode of Horace might have been handed round among the young

gentlemen of Rome. 20

In striking contrast to Hale's description is that of an-

other Harvard writer, Cornelius C. Felton, who, fifty years

earlier, wrote of the same time and the same group:

Strange to say, his [Tennyson's] poems found their way across

the Atlantic, and gained favor in the eyes of a peculiar class of

sentimentalists. Young ladies were known to copy them entire,

and learn them by heart. Stanzas of most melodious unmean-

ingness passed from mouth to mouth, and were praised to the

very echo. The man who possessed a copy was the envy of more

than twenty persons, counting women and children; until at

length Mr. Tennyson came into possession of a very considera-

ble amount of reputation. His admirers sent to England for

copies; but singularly enough not one was to be had. 5


Clearly, Felton had a motive other than merely describing

Tennyson's rise. The phrase, "a peculiar class of sentimen-

talists," gives a clue. It was doubtless aimed at the tran-

scendentalists, whom Felton did not like. John Sullivan

Dwight in 1848 wrote rather proudly of the "martyrs" who

had praised Tennyson so enthusiastically in the early days

as to be "found guilty of rank literary heresy and tran-

scendental infatuation." 22 Attacks in several quarters seem

to have had their origin in Tennyson's American admirers

rather than in his poems. Perhaps this is America's version

of the Northian lesson concerning becoming "the Pet of a

Coterie." 23

Emerson and Longfellow showed in their letters and

journals their interest in Tennyson during the 1830's. In

1834, Emerson copied into his journal two lines of "A

Dirge" from Poems, Chiefly Lyrical, 2 * and in 1836 in ex-

plaining how one learns through reading, he wrote, "I go

to Shakspear, Goethe, Swift, even to Tennyson, submit

myself to them, become merely an organ of hearing, and

yield to the law of their being." 25 A well-known statement


of Emerson's is that "Tennyson is a beautiful half of a

poet." 26 The poems had beauty, but needed more serious

matter. They lacked rude truth: "I think Tennyson got his

inspiration in gardens and that in this country where there

are no gardens, his musky verses could not be written." 27

He found in Tennyson, however, a few "moral sentences"

that affected him deeply, and his impression of the Poems

of 1833 was favorable:

I have read the second volume of poems by Tennyson, with

like delight to that I found in the first and with like criticism.

Drenched he is in Shakspear, born, baptized and bred in Shak-

spear, yet has his own humor, and original rhythm, music and

images. How ring his humorsome lines in the ear, —

"In the afternoon they came unto a land

In which it seemed always afternoon."

Of all the poems in the volume, Emerson liked best "The

Death of the Old Year." 28

Longfellow also was favorably impressed by the volume.

He wrote in 1837 or 1838 to Frances Appleton:

Did you ever read Tennison's [sic] Poems? He too is quaint,

and at times so wondrously beautiful in his expressions, that

even the nicest ear can ask no richer melody: — and the most

lively imagination no lovelier picture nor more true. For in-

stance, what words could better describe the falling of those

silver streams in the Lauterbrunnen Valley, than these two

lines from page 109.

"A land of streams; some like a downward smoke,

Slow-dropping veils of thinnest lawn, did go."

Or the description of Rosalind on p. 121.

"To whom the slope and stream of life,

The life before, the life behind,

In the ear, from far and near,

Shineth musically clear." 29

If Miss Appleton had not already read Tennyson, she did

soon afterward, for she and Fanny Kemble, who were good


friends, were quoting Tennyson to one another in their

letters as early as February, 1840. 30 Probably Fanny Kemble

imparted some of her own enthusiasm for Tennyson to

Miss Appleton; Fanny imparted it to many in America,

even, with doubtful success, to Pierce Butler. 31

Margaret Fuller after 1839 was as enthusiastic about Ten-

nyson as anyone in Cambridge. An important force in the

introduction of foreign literary figures into this country,

she wrote in 1846: "It has been a great object of my life

to introduce here the works of those great geniuses . . .

which might give the young, who are soon to constitute the

state, a higher standard in thought and action. . . ." 32 She

had been deeply impressed by a copy of Tennyson borrowed

from Emerson in 1839, 33 and in 1841, reviewing Tennyson

in the Dial, she praised him extravagantly. 34 When Mar-

garet Fuller visited England in 1846, Emerson tried to ar-

range for her to see Tennyson and Browning because she

had "a sort of right to them" since she had "made their

merits widely known among our young people." 35

Thomas Wentworth Higginson's reminiscences concern-

ing his college days at Harvard testify to the appeal which

Tennyson's early poems had for even the younger stu-

dents there. In 1840 Higginson, seventeen, and Levy Lin-

coln Thaxter, two classes below him, borrowed from Maria

White, Tennyson's "first thin volumes," which seemed to

them to "double the value of words"; 36 and a year later

Higginson closed his Commencement oration on "Poetry

in an Unpoetical Age" with a dramatic peroration coupling

the names of Spenser and Tennyson as the greatest of po-

ets. When Professor Edward T. Channing, correcting the

speech, wanted to delete the passage, Higginson stoutly de-

fended it, declaring that he considered both Tennyson and

Spenser "as among the gods." The passage stood and, ac-

cording to Higginson, met with much applause from faculty

and students alike. 37



Writing in Graham's Magazine in 1842, Rufus W. Gris-

wold suggested that "of the works of contemporary English

poets of the second class," perhaps none had been "more

commented upon or less read in America than those of Al-

fred Tennyson." 38 The little reading is easily explained by

the scarcity of the books, and if Tennyson was much com-

mented upon, that fact may be traceable to Americans'

reading the English reviews and to the idea that Tennyson

was heading a new school of poetry. The school was often

attacked as an infamous one, and many American poets

were designated as imitators — plagiarists. All of this would

make good gossip.

The general assumption, so often made, that Tennyson

was almost unknown in America before 1842 fails to take

into account the reading of the English magazines in this

country. 39 True, American diaries, letters, and periodicals

say little of the English reviews of Tennyson, but certainly

the reviews by Christopher North and John Wilson Croker

made interesting reading, and the magazines which con-

tained the reviews were circulating widely. Enterprising

publishers, pirating the leading English journals and re-

printing them in American editions, were doing a thriving

business, 40 despite competition with numbers of booksellers

who were importing the original editions. 41

With the possible exception of the Edinburgh Review,

Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine seems to have been the

most popular of the foreign literary journals, and it was in

Blackwood's that Christopher North spoke of Tennyson in

the "Noctes Ambrosianae" and wrote his famous review of

Poems, Chiefly Lyrical. Emerson read Blackwood's con-

tinually in the 1830's; Poe corresponded with Christopher

North and may have contributed to Blackwood's; 42 and

Cornelius Mathews, an editor of the Arcturus, was accused


in 1842 of having blamed the competition with Blackwood's

for the failure of his magazine. 43

When the American magazines and newspapers reviewed

individual numbers of the English periodicals, they usually

confined themselves to bare summaries of the articles. In-

frequently, however, the reviewers expressed their own

opinions. Such an exception is the Albion's notice of the

Quarterly Review for April, 1833. John Wilson Croker's

review of Tennyson's 1833 Poems 44 thoroughly convinced

the Albion's reviewer of their absurdity:

The muse of this gentleman belongs to the milky-way of poetry,

according to our reviewer, and certainly from the extracts sub-

mitted, the versification is as meager and affected as possible.

There are unquestionably a few beauties scattered through the

numerous verses, but the accumulation of images without rhyme

or reason, the pedantry of expression without reference to sense,

the laboured accentuation to mark particular phrases, and the

painful absurdity of his comparisons, put them without the

pale of approbation, and force the regret that an ability, which

under proper tuition and restraint, might have produced sweet

fruit and pleasant flowers, should have yielded only the glaring

poppy and the worthless weed. 45

In another notice of an English magazine, this time of

Blackwood's for May, 1836, Horace Greeley's New Yorker

(July 9, 1836) sympathized with "poor Tennyson," whom

Christopher North delighted to lash and who had "experi-

enced some pretty severe handling from the Professor."

The eclectic magazines, composed of articles and reviews

copied from foreign periodicals, were an important means

of making Tennyson known in America. Eliakim Littell's

attractive and popular Museum of Foreign Literature and

Science republished Christopher North's review of Poems,

Chiefly Lyrical in August, 1832; and the Boston Select Jour-

nal of Foreign Periodical Literature, one of the best edited

of all the American eclectic periodicals, republished John

Wilson Croker's review of the 1833 Poems in July, 1833,


both republications coming within three months after their

originals. Croker's article was copied word for word with-

out comment, but North's was subjected to a significant re-

vision. In the midst of his review, the editor of the Museum

inserted a footnote: "We have omitted several pages of well-

deserved animadversion on the mystical affectation, and

'not unfrequent silliness' of Mr. Tennyson, and subjoin

the commendatory part of the article as more likely to in-

terest our readers." The omission, approximately a third

of the review, included the harshest of the ridicule and

none of the praise. The passages concerning the patriotic

songs, "The Poet's Mind," "The 'How' and the 'Why,' "

and the examples of Alfred's kissing like a cod-fish and out-

Wordsworthing Wordsworth were all omitted. The Amer-

icanized version of North was less deadly than the original.

The talk in America of a new school of poetry with Ten-

nyson as its leader obviously had its origin in the descrip-

tions of such an infamous school in the English reviews.

The titles of "milky way" and "God-help-you-silly-ones"

were dropped, but some of the early descriptions of the

school vie with the English in acrimony. The American

Monthly Magazine of New York for October, 1833, off ers

a good example:

. . . the English poets have become the most affected, misty,

and unnatural beings in creation. They see visions and they

dream dreams. . . . They have a set of pretty little silly

phrases, that mean about as much as the simpering sentimen-

talism of a boarding-school miss, who has sighed away her in-

sipid little soul over the musical nothings of Thomas Moore.

When they get into a passion, or rather get a passion into them,

they make it wondrously like a thunder storm in a tea pot; and

they pour it out with a sort of mental hissing, which betokens

the bubbling up and boiling over of the vapory stuff within.

Nothing is told in plain words. All thought is twisted into

strange shapes, till nobody would believe it to be thought at all.

They have a pious horror, not of common-place ideas, for ideas


are the last things looked after, but of what they deem to be

common-place expressions. All the natural forms of speech, all

the hearty ways of telling what the heart feels, are shut out

from the poets' 'word-book' with as much care as if they were

pestilential. They have sounded the depth of unmeaningness

and gone to the bottom of that almost bottomless pit. Rising in

slowly widening circles, a countless throng of poets and poet-

asters crowd on each others' heels, like the souls of the dead

sinners in Dante's hell, with Alfred Tennyson, like Lucifer, be-

low them all. 46

At first the school was represented as entirely English,

and two tendencies of the time — to promote Americanism

and to glorify the classicism of the eighteenth century —

sharpened the attacks. But soon Tennyson and Elizabeth

Barrett began to share the honors with James Russell Low-

ell and Longfellow, and with Tennyson's gradual rise, refer-

ences to the group became more and more favorable. In

February, 1842, four months before Tennyson's 1842 vol-

ume, Evert A. Duyckinck spoke of him in the Arcturus

as "a most respectable lawgiver and governor of his peculiar

province," and of the "good society at his court, if we named

no others than Miss Barrett and Lowell." The following

month, Edgar Allan Poe, annoyed by the talk of "the good

old Pope" and "the good old Goldsmith school," named

Tennyson side by side with the greatest of the Romantics,

saying concerning the work of "Keats, Shelley, Coleridge,

and Tennyson in England; Lowell and Longfellow in Amer-

ica .. . [that] such poetry and such alone has fulfilled the

legitimate office of the muse." 47

A review in 1842 of Lowell's A Year's Life* 8 bore the

title "A New School of Poetry at Hand." According to the

review Tennyson was the undisputed leader of the school;

however, he was not a "MESSIAH": it would require "a

dozen Tennysons to make a Spencer [sic]." Lowell, one of

the best poets of the school, could be expected to prove a

beneficial leaven: he might "soften their errors" and "ele-


vate their style," for he could "emulate the ideality of Ten-

nyson and Keats without the affectation of the one, or the

redundancy of the other." Though far from faultless, the

school was to be welcomed:

It will have none of the jaundiced views of Byron, and little of

the petit maitre style of Pope. It will be intellectual, and, we

fear, pedantic also. It threatens to be disgraced by conceits . . .

so far as we can foresee now, the Tennysons, Longfellows, and

poets of that cast of mind, will give the tone to the coming

change in the public taste. Indeed they are already bringing

about a revolution.


Many contemporary critics spoke of American imitators

of Tennyson from 1840 to 1842. Rufus W. Griswold wrote

in Graham's Magazine that the scarcity of the two early

volumes of Tennyson "enabled some persons to steal the

author's livery and achieve great reputation." 49 Henry T.

Tuckerman "had no idea" until he read the 1842 volume

"how many barefaced imitators he [Tennyson] had in this

country." 50 And Park Benjamin's Brother Jonathan, re-

viewing the volume, facetiously grieved that "divers of our

poetasters who have parodied and plundered by whole-

sale, an author hitherto comparatively little known in this

country, will find their daw's feathers now revealed, in un-

comfortable nakedness." 51

One of the closest followers of the early Tennyson was

James Russell Lowell. When in 1840 he submitted a "sheet

of sonnets" for publication in the Dial, Margaret Fuller

called them imitations of Tennyson, 52 and when his first

volume of poems, A Year's Life, appeared in 1841, reviews

were almost unanimous in noting the Tennyson influence.

An exception was Charles Stearns Wheeler's review in the

Christian Examiner, which quoted lines from "Ianthe" to

show how distant were the poems "from the cold and ac-


curate appreciation of beauty, which marks some of the por-

traits of Alfred Tennyson." 53 On the other hand, a typical

example is that in the North American Review, making

its earliest reference to Tennyson. The reviewer, George S.

Hillard, disliked Lowell's "daintinesses and prettinesses of


He abounds with those affected turns, with which the poetry

of Tennyson (which we suspect our friend has studied more

than is good for him) is so besprinkled. He is too liberal in the

use of the poetical vocabulary. . . . Speaking of a lady's hair,

he says it is "parted flowingly" and "maidenwise," and in the

same poem, we have "rosy white," "red moon-rise," and "far

liefer." Why not "far rather"? He does not listen to a bird's

song, but he "drinks" its "jargoning." Leaves are "rifted fit-

fully"; eyes have a "sunset-tinted haziness," and a "mysterious

shine. . . ." 54

Hillard objected also to the compounding of words and to

the use of "the solemn termination eth, as 'dwelleth' for

'dwells.' " The criticism closely resembled the British re-

viewers' comments upon Tennyson's diction.

The young Lowell loved sheer melody, music purely for

the sake of the sound, and this he found in Tennyson. Call-

ing Tennyson the only English poet whom Lowell "seemed

to have read with admiration" in 1841, R. H. Stoddard

wrote that to say Lowell "was impressed by Tennyson is to

say that he was impressed by whatever is most purely poetic

in English verse." 55 Tennyson's influence upon Lowell is

evident less in verbal similarity than in a similarity of mel-

ody, mood, and atmosphere. Lowell has few lines or phrases

which can be called clear echoes of Tennyson, but the in-

fluence is unmistakable.

The poems which show the influence most strongly may

be conveniently divided into two groups. First, there are

the pictures of loveliness and desolation in chivalric setting.

The mood is melancholy, and the atmosphere, dreamy and


mysterious. A forsaken maiden, a moaning night wind over

a barren moor, strange shadows, and a waning red moon

form the scene, which is described in verses of lulling music.

Such material is, of course, a part of the whole Romantic

movement. It is in Keats, and that Lowell was deeply im-

pressed by Keats is certain. Some of his admiration for

Tennyson may be accounted for by the fact that they had

Keats as a common master. Many of Lowell's borrowings

from Tennyson are passages in which Tennyson is most

Keatsian. But, as the reviewers pointed out, Lowell fre-

quently borrowed Tennyson's mannerisms or eccentrici-

ties. And in these early years Lowell was going to great

lengths to get Tennyson's poems, reading all that he could

get his hands on. A commonplace book which he kept from

1837 to 1839 contains six quotations from Tennyson, fewer

from Coleridge, Byron, and Shelley, and none from Keats. 56

Then, too, Lowell's distinctly Tennysonian and not at

all Keatsian "girl-name poems," to be considered later,

strengthen the Lowell-Tennyson relationship. Many of

Lowell's poems of dreariness and melancholy seem directly

traceable to Tennyson's "Mariana," "The Ballad of Ori-

ana," "Mariana in the South," "The Lady of Shalott,"

"Oenone," or "The Lotos-Eaters."

A good example is Lowell's uncollected poem, "A Bal-


Gloomily the river floweth,

Close by her bower door,

And drearily the nightwind bloweth

Across the barren moor.

It rustles through the withering leaves

Upon the poplars tall,

And mutters widely 'neath the eaves

Of the unlighted hall.


The waning moon above the hill

Is rising strange and red,

And fills her soul, against her will,

With fancies lone and dread.

The stream all night will flow as drearly,

The wind will shriek forlorn,

She fears — she knows that something fearful

Is coming ere the morn.

The curtains in that lonely place

Wave like a heavy pall,

And her dead mother's pale, pale face

Doth flicker on the wall.

And all the rising moon about,

Her fear did shape the clouds,

And saw dead faces staring out

From coffins and from shrouds.

A screech-owl now, for three nights past,

Housed in some hollow tree,

Sends struggling up against the blast

His long shriek fearfully.

Strange shadows waver to and fro,

In the uncertain light,

And the scared dog hath howled below

All through the weary night/


Compare "Mariana":

About a stone-cast from the wall

A sluice with blacken'd waters slept,

And o'er it many, round and small,

The cluster'd marish-mosses crept.

Hard by a poplar shook alway,

All silver-green with gnarled bark:

For leagues no other tree did dark

The level waste, the rounding gray.


She only said, 'My life is dreary,

He cometh not,' she said;

She said, 'I am aweary, aweary,

I would that I were dead!'

And ever when the moon was low,

And the shrill winds were up 'nd away,

In the white curtain, to and fro,

She saw the gusty shadow sway,

But when the moon was very low,

And wild winds bound within their cell,

The shadow of the poplar fell

Upon her bed, across her brow.

She only said, [etc.]

All day within the dreary house,

The doors upon their hinges creak'd;

The blue fly sung i' the pane; the mouse

Behind the mouldering wainscot shriek'd,

Or from the crevice peer'd about.

Old faces glimmered thro' the doors,

Old footsteps trod the upper floors,

Old voices called her from without.

She only said, [etc.] 5S

''Serenade," in A Year's Life/ 9 is in the same mood, and

a refrain, "Alone, alone, ah woe! alone!" is in the same

key as that of "Mariana in the South":

I am all alone,

Love-forgotten and love-forlorn. 60

Lowell's "Rosaline" is another in the mood of "Mari-


The death-watch ticked behind the wall,

The blackness rustled like a pall,

The moaning wind did rise and fall

Among the bleak pines, Rosaline! 61


The name Rosaline is repeated twice in each stanza much

in the manner of Tennyson's "Oriana." The chivalric set-

ting in which the grief stricken lover looks upon his dead

Rosaline is again like "Oriana." Rosaline is the traditional

lady of chivalry with her mystic halo.

"Farewell," uncollected in Lowell's late editions, con-

tains a portrait of the traditional lady which reminds one

of the Lady of Shalott. The ethereal lady of "Farewell" is

named Marian. Tennyson usually described his ladies in

the third person, but Lowell always had the lover do the


Fair as a single star thou shinest,

And white as lilies are

The slender hand wherewith thou twinest

Thy heavy auburn hair;

Thou art to me

A memory

Of all that is divinest:

Thou art so fair and tall,

. Thy looks so queenly are,

Thy very shadow on the wall,

Thy step upon the stair,

The thought that thou art nigh,

The chance look of thine eye

Are more to me than all, Marian,

And will be till I die. 62

Lowell's "The Syrens" has the drowsy, soothing atmos-

phere of Tennyson's "The Lotos-Eaters," as these lines indi-


All around with a slumberous sound,

The singing waves slide up the strand,

And there, where the smooth, wet pebbles be,

The waters gurgle longingly,

As if they fain would seek the shore,

To be at rest from the ceaseless roar,


To be at rest for evermore, —

For evermore. 63

The "Syrens" was probably inspired by Tennyson's little

song, "The Sea-Fairies," in the 1833 Poems. The sirens and

the fairies sing enticingly to the weary mariners in much

the same manner; however, Tennyson's singers become gay

and sprightly, while Lowell's preserve the atmosphere of

"The Lotos-Eaters." 64

The second group which show marked Tennysonian in-

fluence is Lowell's "girl-name poems." Tennyson's 1830 and

1833 volumes contain several portraits of girls written in

a light and fanciful vein. "Lilian," "Madeline," "Adeline,"

"Margaret," "Rosalind," and "Kate" are all of a kind, and

"Lilian" is often used to typify the group:

Airy, fairy Lilian,

Flitting, fairy Lilian,

When I ask her if she love me,

Claps her tiny hands above me,

Laughing all she can;

She'll not tell me if she love me,

Cruel little Lilian.

When my passion seeks

Pleasance in love-sighs,

She, looking thro' and thro' me

Thoroughly to undo me,

Smiling, never speaks:

So innocent-arch, so cunning-simple,

From beneath her purfled wimple

Glancing with black-beaded eyes,

Till the lightning laughters dimple

The baby-roses in her cheeks;

Then away she flies.

Pry thee weep, May Lilian!

Gaiety without eclipse

Wearieth me, May Lilian;


Thro' my very heart it thrilleth

When from crimson-threaded lips

Silver-treble laughter trilleth:

Prythee weep, May Lilian!

Praying all I can,

If prayers will not hush thee,

Airy Lilian,

Like a rose-leaf I will crush thee,

Fairy Lilian. 65

Lowell's "Sonnets on Names" in A Year's Life resemble

Tennyson's portraits in sprightliness. 66 Some verbal simi-

larity also may be noted. "Rose" is an example:

My ever-lightsome, ever laughing Rose,

Who always speakest first and thinkest last,

Thy full voice is as clear as bugle-blast;

Right from the ear down to the heart it goes

And says "I'm beautiful! as who but knows?"

Thy name reminds me of old romping days,

Of kisses stolen in dark passage-ways,

Or in the parlor, if the mother-nose

Gave sign of drowsy watch. I wonder where

Are gone thy tokens, given with a glance

So full of everlasting love till morrow,

Or a day's endless grieving for the dance

Last night denied, backed with a lock of hair,

That spake of broken hearts and deadly sorrow.

Rose's fickle heart suggests Tennyson's "Madeline," and

the "ever-lightsome, ever laughing" recalls the thrice re-

peated refrain, "Ever-varying Madeline." 67 Two others

of the "Sonnets on Names" have phrases suggesting "Lil-

ian." Mary is a "gold-haired, laughing little fairy"; and

Anne is quiet and pensive;

Yet is she not of those who, all they can,

Strive to be gay, and striving, seem most sad.


Lowell's "Isabel" and two songs, "Lift up the curtain of

thine eyes" and "What reck I of the stars when I," are in

the same group. 68 "Isabel" in its closing lines resembles

also the "Mariana" group. The second of the songs de-

scribed the lady's brown hair with a phrase, "parted maiden-

wise," which may be akin to Tennyson's phrase in "Isabel":

locks not wide-dispread,

Madonna-wise on either side her head. 69

Several circumstances contributed to the resemblance be-

tween the two serious portraits, Lowell's "Irene" and Ten-

nyson's "Isabel." "Irene" was inspired by Maria White,

and "Isabel," by Tennyson's mother. They were women

of much the same type. Both poems emphasize a gentle-

ness, a wisdom in counsel, a God-like quality, and perfect

womanhood. 70 That the poems should speak of many of the

same qualities is to be expected, but it is evident that Low-

ell's owes something to Tennyson.

A note in the New World reversing the charge of the in-

fluence gives interesting evidence of the early resemblances

between Lowell and Tennyson. The writer had looked over

the English reviews of Tennyson's 1842 volume and was

disappointed that "none of the London journals charge the

author with stealing either his style or thoughts from that

first of modern bards, James Russell Lowell." 71

No other major American poet of the period fell under

the spell of Tennyson as did Lowell. Longfellow, however,

felt the influence of Tennyson to some extent. In 1840 Poe,

always the zealous detector of plagiarism, loudly proclaimed

one borrowing from Tennyson: that of the "Midnight Mass

for the Dying Year" 72 from "The Death of the Old Year."

This, Poe labeled "plagiarism too palpable to be mis-

taken"; Longfellow had stolen "nearly all that is valuable

in the piece of Tennyson": "the conception of personifying

the Old Year as a dying old man, with the singularly wild


and fantastic manner in which that conception is carried

out." Both poems capitalized "Old Year"; both had an ab-

sence of rime at the end of each stanza; and they were alike

in "the general peculiarity of the rhythm." 73 When Long-

fellow heard of the accusation, he wrote, "I did not even

know that he [Tennyson] had written a piece on this sub-

ject." 74 Longfellow, however, had owned in 1837 a co PY

of Tennyson's 1833 volume containing the poem.

In his heated arguments on plagiarism, Poe himself did

not escape the charge of copying Tennyson. His "The

Haunted Palace," first published in N. C. Brooks's Amer-

ican Museum of Literature and the Arts, for April, 1839,

was called a copying of Tennyson's "The Deserted House";

and "The Sleeper," written early and having several ver-

sions and varying titles, was also called Tennysonian. 75 An

anonymous article in the Foreign Quarterly Review (Lon-

don), which worried Poe greatly, quoted passages from

"The Haunted Palace" as examples of a "strong Tennyso-

nian tinge." 76 The following lines were called a "metrical


In the greenest of our valleys

By good angels tenanted,

Once a fair and stately palace

(Snow-white palace) rear'd its head.

And all with pearl and ruby glowing

Was the fair palace-door,

Through which came flowing, flowing, flowing,

And sparkling evermore,

A troop of echoes —

"The Haunted Palace" metaphorically described an insane

mind as "The Deserted House" described a dead body.

James Aldrich, New York editor and minor poet, 77 owed

nearly all that is poetic in his work to Tennyson. His son


nets and short poems, scattered through New York maga-

zines and newspapers, abound in dreamy imagery, desolate

scenes, and also sprightly feminine portraits. "The Dream-

ing Girl" immediately suggests Tennyson:

The clusters of her dusky hair

Are floating on her bosom fair,

Like early darkness stealing o'er

The amber tints that daylight gave,

Or, like the shadow of a cloud

Upon a fainting summer wave.

Up waking from her blissful sleep,

She stalks with fear too wild to weep;

Through the trailing honeysuckle,

All night breathing odorous sighs,

Which her lattice dimly curtains,

The morn peeps in with his bright eyes.


Poe noted Aldrich's "Molly Gray" as one of the clearest

imitations of Tennyson's "Lilian":

Pretty, fairy Molly Gray!

What may thy fit emblems be?

Stream or star or bird or flower —

They are all too poor for thee.

No type to match thy beauty

My wandering fancy brings

Not fairer than its Chrysalis

Thy soul with its golden wings! 79

Such verses were tremendously popular in newspapers

and magazines in the early 1840's. For some of them Ten-

nyson was undoubtedly the source, and probably he was

in some measure responsible for the great wave of interest

in airy feminine descriptions at this time. They form a rare

evidence that some Americans other than the select literati

were reading Tennyson's poems before 1842. The following

two, the first as early as 1834, will exemplify the large group:


Sweeter than the sweetest manna,

Lovely, lively, chaste Susannah

You're the girl that still I muse on,

Pretty little smiling Susan.

Oh! if verses can amuse ye,

Fairest, sweetest, laughing Susy,

I'd write on, but never rebuke ye

Handsome and good natured Suky!

Every rhyme should flatter you,

Sprightly, dimpling, tender Sue. .


There is a witchery about you, Kate,

'Tis not the saucy sparkle of your eye,

Nor step with conscious victory elate,

Spurning the suppliant earth in passing by,

Nor smile that seems all comers to defy —

It is not these, but all of them combined,

And voice that varies with each fancy wild,

Playing, like noon-tide shadows, o'er thy mind:

As wilful art thou as a petted child,

Fickle, alluring as an April wind!

None ever yet have touched that heart of fire

Burning far down with all this dross above —

Ah! that were prize where bold heart may aspire,

'Twere worth a world to tame thee into love! 81


The American criticism of Tennyson before 1842 con-

sisted very largely of praise. Only the poems now universally

classed as Tennyson's worst were condemned. "O Darling

Room," of which Croker had made much fun, was rejected

by his most ardent admirers. Lowell in 1838 quoted its first

stanza as an example of "floods of verses with all the child-

ishness and none of the redeeming points of Wordsworth's

earlier style." 82 Fanny Kemble, reading the 1833 Poems

sent to her in America, thought Tennyson "to possess in a

higher degree than any English poet except, perhaps, Keats,

the power of writing pictures." "The Miller's Daughter,"


"The Lady of Shalott," "Mariana," and "Eleanore" she

thought "full of exquisite form and color," but "The little

room with the two little white sofas" she hated. As Miss

Kemble noted, the three stanzas, each one of which rimed

exquisite with white lent themselves "temptingly to the

making of good burlesque." 83

Oliver Wendell Holmes singled out another of the early

poems as one of Tennyson's worst. Lecturing upon Tenny-

son's poetry in 1853, Holmes, according to a newspaper re-

porter, recalled a lecture which he had made before 1842

and in which he had discussed the poems of Tennyson

which were then published. He had thought poorly of the

poems, "one especially, a war-song, not republished, which

was the dowdiest, crushed old woman's bonnet of a battle-

song that ever Bellona figured in." 84 But "The Lady of

Shalott" was excellent: he had "heard it read from the man-

uscript before publication to a company which it held in

magnetic silence." 85

The theory that early American reviews of Tennyson

were mere copies of the English, lacking "even the slight

merit of originality," 86 is not at all applicable to the period

before 1842. Poems, Chiefly Lyrical and Poems, 1833, re-

ceived at least five reviews or notices in American maga-

zines, and they were, without exception, loud in praise of

Tennyson. If the authors knew of the harsh criticism in the

British periodicals, they were not influenced by it. The

American notices were, if nothing else, original.

The Western Messenger of Louisville, as has been said,

seems to have been the first to review the poems. Although

founded primarily as an organ of Unitarian religion, it was

an important literary periodical. Oliver Wendell Holmes,

Theodore Parker, and Ralph Waldo Emerson were among

its contributors, and some of Keats's poetry was first pub-

lished in its pages. 87 Poems, Chiefly Lyrical was reviewed


by its editor, James Freeman Clarke, in December, 1836.

The review was extravagant in praise of the poems:

No music we ever heard was half so sweet in its ripple and ca-

dence — no warm June morning so full of soft influences of

woods, winds and waters — nothing in conversation, literature,

or oratory so wholly charming as the bits of poetry in this little

book. And yet this is wholly and merely the beauty of expres-

sion. The thoughts are often very trivial, the sentiment wholly

insignificant, but the form is so exquisite, that we smack our

lips, as though tasting some rare delicacy, which, when it has

left our mouths, we think no more of forever.

"The Deserted House," "Claribel," and "The Sleeping

Beauty" were quoted in full. In "Claribel," the sound was

"so sweet we can well dispense with any meaning." Its mu-

sic reminded one of Mozart. "The Sleeping Beauty" re-

sembled the pictures of "some glittering Lombard or Vene-

tian Painter." The editor closed with an invitation to his

readers to ask for more: if they "appear to enjoy these sweet

sounds as much as we have, we can give them some further

specimens of the dainty Alfred Tennyson." 88

In March, 1 837, Every Body's A Ibum, a Philadelphia peri-

odical devoted to "humorous tales, essays, anecdotes and

facetiae," contained a brief notice of Tennyson's two vol-

umes. Edited by Charles Alexander, a founder of the Satur-

day Evening Post and editor from time to time of several

short-lived papers, the Album had no literary pretensions.

During its brief existence from July, 1836, to June, 1837,

the Album printed some American poems and a few se-

lected poems of Thomas Campbell, Mrs. Hemans, and

Tennyson. Only Tennyson's were noticed. The reviewer

placed Tennyson in the forefront of living English poets.

Of that group "who have sprung into notice, since those

brilliant masters of the lyre, who figured in the latter part

of the last century, and the earlier part of the present, have


retired, none has attracted more favorable regard" than

Alfred Tennyson:

His felicity of diction, wild originality of conception, and mel-

ody of numbers, can hardly be surpassed. Most of his poems are

short — small but priceless gems — .

The notice quoted "The Death of the Old Year" in full,

and promised that, since Tennyson's two volumes were

"exceedingly rare in this country," the Album would pre-

sent occasionally to its readers "some of the happiest effu-

sions of this original and highly popular poet." 89

The most comprehensive American review of Tenny-

son before 1842 was that by John Sullivan Dwight in the

Christian Examiner for January, 1838. A Unitarian maga-

zine published in Boston, the Examiner was for more than

half a century one of the most important of American re-

views not only because of its theological work but also be-

cause of its distinctive literary criticism. Dwight, a frequent

contributor, was a young Boston minister and music critic.

A graduate of Harvard and a member of the Transcenden-

tal Club, he later became a leader in the Brook Farm move-

ment. In 1838 he was already accomplished in the criticism

of music. His review of Tennyson's two volumes — the titles

of both were listed as the heading of the article — was wise

and understanding, and in spite of evidences of a strong

admiration for Christopher North, it was independent. The

review showed the musician's love of melody and, less fre-

quently, the minister's demand for moral purpose.

Dwight had read the witty review in the Quarterly, which

showed "what ludicrous constructions can be put" upon

the poems. He had read also North's review in Blackwood's,

which he thought much better, for though it made merry

with Tennyson's faults, it paid due reverence to "the genu-

ine poetic spirit, which always finds its way into the warm

poet's heart of Christopher North." Because of North's sane-


tion, Dwight had "no misgivings in introducing the poet

to the American public." He did not feel called upon to

drag to light the least successful poems. Some were "fruit

not worth the gathering." Tennyson "seems often to have

descended to the mechanical task of trying to make up

something, which may look like the living product of some

old remembered inspiration." But even these pieces had

one excellence which pervaded everything of Tennyson's:

"they charm by their melodious sound." Tennyson had

"the true instinct of rhythm" and could not "write unmu-

sically." Although he had much to outgrow, he had a "po-

et's faculty to answer for."

"Claribel" was quoted as an example of melodious music.

It had, according to the review, in common with many of

Tennyson's poems, a Wordsworthian truth and freshness

of diction, which was one sure sign, among others, of the

poet's intimacy with nature:

There is a minute reality in his pictures of the outer world; a

dainty selection, as by the surest instinct, of the most delicate

and significant features of nature. He has looked on her calmly,

with an eye of his own, till all that is common place vanishes,

and the thing appears as it is, with a renovated beauty, so per-

fect that the heart is never weary of it. So vivid are his allusions

to natural sights, that we know that all this is the poetry of

experience; — it was lived first, and then written. This poet, we

know, must have been an observer. He has the true insight, or

onsight, (Anschauen) as the Germans call it. Hence the trans-

parency of his style. Every phrase is genuine; it stands for some-

thing felt; it is frank and out-speaking, shunning neither home-

liness nor strangeness, unlike the empty phrases which pass

current often where poetry will not. Every word stands for a

thing; remove a word, and you erase a feature.

"The Miller's Daughter" was quoted to show Tenny-

son's minute fidelity to nature in all his descriptions. "The

May Queen" and "New-Year's Eve," also quoted, were

"two exquisite little pieces" in the style of simple feeling.


"The Lady of Shalott" had "exquisite beauty of imagery,

yet of most obscure meaning." "The Ballad of Oriana,"

quoted in full, received the highest praise:

This is all but perfect. Why shall we not call it one of the best

ballads in the English language? There is not a line or a phrase

which we would willingly spare. In what bold relief it stands

forth! what a holy calm invests him! It is the height of the pas-

sive heroic.

But, Dwight thought, perhaps the best of Tennyson's

poems were his female portraits: "a gallery of lovely ideals,

which all but breathe from the canvas." "Adeline" and

"Margaret" were quoted as examples. These, together with

such poems as "The Lotos-Eaters," "The Hesperides," and

"A Dream of Fair Women," were beautifuh Their one fault

was that they "ma ke no appeal to any active sentiment

within us." They "shine for i^ojjiing^rrilisuj^red as _in a

vacuum." Tennyson had sacrificed too much to beauty. He

possessed "great excellences,^^maTkaLrre~^v^rywEere," but

what he had yet done was "not worthy of himself." We

might hope for better things.

In July, 1841, Margaret Fuller's notice of Tennyson's

poems appeared in the Dial, a quarterly which during its

four years of existence from 1840 to 1844 served as the chief

organ of the New England transcendentalists. Margaret

Fuller and Emerson were its editors, and most of the tran-

scendental group contributed to it. The Tennyson notice

testifies to the admiration felt for Tennyson by the mem-

bers of this group:

Tennyson is known by heart, is copied as Greek works were at

the revival of literature; nothing has been known for ten years

back more the darling of the young than these two little vol-

umes. "If you wish to know the flavor of strawberries or cherries,

ask children and birds." We understand he is preparing for a

new edition, which will, we hope, be extensively circulated in

this country.


Evert A. Duyckinck wrote a review of Tennyson's poems

for his Arcturus, A Journal of Books and Opinions in Feb-

ruary, 1842. A New York monthly designed to have "the

mixed character of a Review and a Magazine," the Arcturus

lasted only a year and a half. Its editors were Duyckinck

and Cornelius Mathews. Duyckinck was an early admirer

of Tennyson, but it was long before he classed Tennyson

as anything but a minor poet. In August, 1841, Duyckinck

listed him with the "minor names" who "will live with the

Donnes, the Carews, and the Marvells," 90 and in December

of the same year he spoke of Charles and Alfred Tennyson

as of equal rank, admitting that all he knew of either one

of them was what he had found in Leigh Hunt's Tatler. 91

Duyckinck, however, was one of the few Americans to own

a copy of Poems, Chiefly Lyrical, and in his collection of

books given to the Lenox Library in 1878, there were more

copies of Tennyson's works than of any other English poet

except Shakespeare.

The review in Arcturus welcomed the news of prepara-

tions for a new edition of Tennyson: "Right welcome to

the taste of the better judges and the popular enjoyment"

would the poems be. "New Year's Eve" was set before the

readers as "a provocative to the banquet." It exhibited "sev-

eral characteristics of the true poet; and, chief of all, a sym-

pathy with common and familiar things, not holding verse,

as formerly it has been practiced, a grammarian's exercise

of words, but a living tabernacle of the spirit, filled with

thought and sensibility."

The "highest kingdom of the art poetical" Duyckinck

thought Tennyson had not "aimed at," and a peculiar

school of poets had gathered around him:

The turn this plaintive school of poets has for melancholy,

is one of their chief characteristics: it is associated with gentle-

ness, grace, and much beauty; but its predominance is not

evidence of a high order of poetry. . . . This is an unhappy



tendency of the Tennyson school of poets: yet, there are many

moods of the mind, when such a gentle voice of grief comes to

relieve the burdened heart of many of its cares, by its words of


Except for the few reviews, American literary periodicals

had little to do with Tennyson before 1842. One looks in

vain for any selected poems of his in such magazines as the

North American Review, the Southern Literary Messenger,

or Graham's Magazine. It was left almost entirely to New

York weekly newspapers to do the selecting that was done. 92

James Aldrich's New York Literary Gazette led all oth-

ers by printing seven of Tennyson's poems during its six

months of existence in 1839. 93 The New World, edited by

Park Benjamin and James Aldrich, printed six in its quarto

edition in 1841 and 1842. 94 Aldrich, an ardent Tennyso-

nian, was probably responsible for Tennyson's appearance

in both of these papers. Horace Greeley's New Yorker se-

lected "The Mermaid" and "The Death of the Old Year," 95

and the Neiv York Mirror selected "Kate," "Margaret," and

"The Sleeping Beauty." 96

Forty-one poems by Tennyson, counting each appearance

as a separate poem, have been located in American period-

icals, either as quotations in original reviews or as separate

selections, before the appearance of the Poems of 1842.

Nine are poems which were not reprinted in 1842. Nine-

teen are from Poems, Chiefly Lyrical and twenty-two from

the Poems of 1833. Twelve are from the "girl-name poems,"

and six are from the "Mariana group." "Mariana" appears

twice, and "Lilian" once. Most reprinted is "Margaret,"

which appears four times. "Adeline," "The Ballad of Ori-

ana," "New Year's Eve," "The Sleeping Beauty," and "The

Death of the Old Year" each appears three times.



The first move to reprint Tennyson's early poems came

in America in 1838. John Sullivan Dwight's review in the

Christian Examiner in January of that year deplored the

fact that enterprising American booksellers had not repub-

lished Tennyson, and by April, Emerson had persuaded

one to risk the venture. C. C. Little & Company, of Boston,

wrote to Longfellow on April 27, 1838, that Emerson had

urged them to republish Tennyson's poems and that they

intended to do so. They had Emerson's permission to print

from "his volume," which Longfellow then had, and they

wished to borrow also Longfellow's "own volume." 97 Ap-

parently, the proposed edition was to include Poems,

Chiefly Lyrical and the Poems of 1833 complete. But the

plan was never carried out. Why it was rather abruptly

abandoned is not known. Possibly Tennyson himself heard

of the plan and in some way remonstrated.

In 1840 the desire for a new edition again asserted itself

in America, and this time the first step was to ask Tennyson

to give his permission or to prepare an edition himself.

Charles Stearns Wheeler, tutor in Greek at Harvard, and a

friend of Lowell and Emerson, wrote to Tennyson in De-

cember making such a request. 98 Little & Brown, successors

to C. C. Little & Company, still wished to publish the po-

ems, and Wheeler was eager to edit them. Cheerfully dili-

gent and untiring in clerical duties, Wheeler had helped

Emerson edit Carlyle's Miscellanies in 1838 and 1839, 99 and

when Lowell suggested that he write Tennyson offering

similar services, 100 Wheeler was delighted at the prospect.

Of Wheeler's offer, Tennyson wrote to Edward Fitz-

gerald early in 1841, "You bore me about my book; so does

a letter just received from America, threatening, tho' in

the civilest terms, that, if I will not publish in England,

they will do it for me in that land of freemen." Concerning


what he styled a threat Tennyson added, "I may curse know-

ing what they will bring forth. But I don't care." 101 Ten-

nyson, however, did care very much. Undoubtedly he was

inwardly pleased by this compliment to his poems, but the

thought of seeing again in print his much ridiculed early

verses was galling. He might have held out against the en-

treaties of his English friends to publish, but against the

menace of this new peril from across the Atlantic, his only

defense lay in the preparation of a new edition of his own.

On February 22, 1841, he answered Wheeler:

I thank you for your polite Sc kindly communication, as also

for the offer of your services in the correction of the press, sup-

posing that my book were published in America. I am rejoiced

that I have made myself friends on the other side of the At-

lantic, Sc feel what a high privilege it is for a writer to be born

into a language common to two great people; Sc so believe me

not insensible, or if that seem to savour too much of the cold-

ness of mere courtesy, believe me deeply sensible of the honour

my American friends have done me even in making a request

to which I feel it impossible to accede as they perhaps might

wish. I am conscious of many things so exceedingly crude in

those two volumes that it would certainly be productive of no

slight annoyance to me, to see them republished as they stand

at present either here or in America, but I will tell you what

I will do, for when I was wavering before, your letter decided

me. I have corrected copies of most that was worth correction

in those two volumes & I will in the course of a few months

republish them in England with several new poems Sc transmit

copies to Little Sc Brown Sc also to yourself (if you will accept

one) Sc you can then of course do as you choose with them. 102

Knowing nothing of Wheeler's correspondence with

Tennyson, Evert A. Duyckinck, in his News-Gong for De-

cember, 1841, urged an American reprint of Tennyson, and

a few days later Lowell wrote to him that Tennyson was at

work upon a new edition. 103 Concerning the news, Lowell

added in the same letter:


I do not wish you to [Lowell first wrote, "You need not," then

marked it out] state your authority for this — but you may de-

pend on it, for my authority is the poet himself. I have the

great satisfaction of thinking that the publication is in some

measure owing to myself, for it was by my means that he was

written to about it, and he says that "his American friends" are

the chief cause of his reprinting.

Duyckinck was delighted, hoped we could have also the

sonnets of the brother Charles, 104 and in his Arcturus, be-

came enthusiastic over this example of Americans' recogni-

tion of a minor poet:

It is understood that Moxon, the London publisher, is about

to issue a new edition of the poems of Alfred Tennyson, under-

taken by the author, we believe, at the solicitation of his Ameri-

can friends and readers. It is a handsome compliment, this, to

the "American Market," and one that is richly deserved. For

the enthusiasm for good verse, even including the recent minor

poets of England, is far greater here than at home. 105

Before the new English edition had appeared, prepara-

tions were under way for an American edition, to be its

exact duplicate. The Dial announced, belatedly, in July,

1842, that Tennyson, "moved by being informed of his

American popularity," was preparing a new edition and

had sent the new poems to Wheeler, who was "republishing

them here."

The correct meaning of the word moved in the quota-

tion might be one which the Dial did not intend. The pres-

sure from America may not have left Tennyson in the best

of humor. But be that as it may, the new English edition

was completed in May, 1842. By mid-June copies were

reaching America; within a few weeks Americans had an

edition of their own; and the poems were becoming plenti-


Chapter II


OF 1842


volumes, the first consisting largely of poems which had

been published in 1830 and 1833, and the second made up,

with two exceptions, of poems hitherto unprinted. The

most noteworthy feature of the first volume, and from the

standpoint of American criticism, of the entire edition, was

the radical revisions of the reprinted selections. Of the po-

ems of 1830 the majority were discarded, and the others

retained with little alteration, but the major pieces of 1833

—"The Lady of Shalott," "The Miller's Daughter," "Oe-

none," "The Dream of Fair Women" — were all retained

and all extensively revised. The second volume contained

such new favorites as "Morte d' Arthur," "Ulysses," and

"Locksley Hall." 1

Early in June, 1842, before any copies could reach Amer-

ica through the book market, Tennyson sent the two vol-

umes to Charles Stearns Wheeler. Wheeler wrote to Emer-

son on June 11 that the "two beautiful volumes" had

arrived and that William D. Ticknor and Company of Bos-

ton was busy reprinting them. 2 Just why Ticknor, and not

Little and Brown, was given the volumes is not clear, but

Wheeler was trying to make for Tennyson the best bargain

possible, and it is reasonable to suppose that Ticknor's

financial agreement was more favorable to Tennyson than


was Little and Brown's. Certainly, if available information

is correct, the contract which Ticknor made was one almost

unheard of among publishers of that time. After the nego-

tiations, Tennyson wrote to Wheeler, "I have full faith that

you have made as good a bargain for me as was possible un-

der the circumstances. . . . These things will all be rem-

edied with the progress of years though perhaps the grass

will wave over our graves 'before the coming of the better

day.' " 3 Tennyson was speaking of the coming of an inter-

national copyright law, still fifty years away. Ticknor had

paid him one hundred and fifty dollars for the copyright of

his two volumes. 4

William Davis Ticknor began his career as a Boston pub-

lisher in 1832, and in 1845 he took James T. Fields into

partnership. Throughout Tennyson's life, he looked upon

Ticknor and Fields and their successors 5 as his authorized

American publishers. They were always strictly honest. At

a time when nearly every American publisher was pirating

the works of English authors, Ticknor and Fields insisted

upon making full payments for copyright. 6 Tennyson's long

relationship with the company was pleasant in the extreme.

The copyright payment for his first American edition, Ten-

nyson never forgot. On his eightieth birthday he recalled

memories of William D. Ticknor as "one who gave so hon-

orable an example to his countrymen of justice in the high-

est sense." 7 Ticknor's payment for the Poems of 1842 is

possibly the earliest copyright payment by an American

publisher to a foreign author. 8

Ticknor issued his edition of the Poems on July 7, 1842, 9

three weeks after copies of the English edition had begun

to reach American booksellers. 10 At least four Boston book-

sellers advertised Ticknor's edition prominently during

July, and reviewers and advertisers alike were unanimous

in their praise of the binding, printing, and general edi-

torial excellence of the books. 11 Bound in two octavo vol-


umes, the edition was, as nearly as Ticknor could make it,

an exact duplicate of the English edition. At least one re-

viewer could not distinguish between the two without look-

ing at the publisher's label. 12 Wheeler had wanted the

American edition to add a preface "telling our good people

who Alfred Tennyson is," and he had asked Emerson to

write it. 13 But the plan was dropped, possibly because of

the desire to make the American edition a duplicate of the

English. Both were issued without preface or introduction.

Particularly significant is the fact that the first American

edition consisted of from fifteen hundred to two thousand

copies; whereas, the English publisher was willing to risk

only eight hundred. The second English edition (June,

1843) added a thousand more, still little above the Amer-

ican figure. 14 Not until the third English edition appeared

in 1845 did the London publisher outdistance Ticknor,

and within a few months after the English third edition,

Ticknor issued his second. 15 Remembering that the English

edition was circulating in America three weeks ahead of the

American and that it continued to circulate to some extent

after the American appeared, 16 one is forced to the conclu-

sion that the sales in America were but slightly, if at all,

behind those in England.


First to greet Tennyson's new poems in America were

the Boston newspapers. Their reaction was mildly favor-

able. On the day the poems appeared, the Transcript spoke

of the "exquisite lyrics and ballads" whose very titles were

"melody itself," but within a few days its enthusiasm had

cooled: if Tennyson "had written less, he would assuredly

have written better"; he should have used the pruning

knife more freely. 17 The Post (July 12, 1842) was strongly

hostile. Confessing that he had read much about Tennyson


in English magazines, the reviewer kept his eye on Christo-

pher North. Tennyson was "capable of far greater things,"

but many of his verses were "mere trash." Tennyson ap-

peared "to be almost one of those great little writers who

find most of their originality in truisms, puerility, and af-

fectation." The Times (July 14, 1842) in a long rambling

review could not make up its mind, and only the Courier

(July 12, 1842) gave unadulterated praise: Tennyson's re-

markable imagination, purest pathos, melodious versifica-

tion, and originality afforded "the most striking evidence

of genius" and combined to make Tennyson "one of the

most deeply imaginative and affecting bards of the day."

The Poems reached New York by July 12, and there,

where the newspapers had paid Tennyson's poems far more

attention before 1842, the reception was more favorable. 18

The New World was incensed by the Boston Post's review.

Feeling only pity and contempt for the reviewer's obtuse-

ness and "his utter want of appreciation of the exquisitely

beautiful," it assured him that Tennyson's poems "were

not made for him, less he for them." 19 In its own review of

the Poems y the New World gave one of the earliest expres-

sions of the idea, later so prevalent, that Tennyson was the

oracle of the age:

Tennyson's poems are everywhere pervaded with a peculiarly

tender grace: they are highly imaginative, and eminently sug-

gestive; shadowing forth, with dreamy indistinction, the great

Idea of the age. We regard Tennyson as occupying higher

ground than any poet of his time — he is a true prophet, some-

what in advance of his age, giving utterance to the unappre-

hended aspirations of millions. 20

The New York Daily Tribune (July 12, 1842) praised

Tennyson's "true poetic vein," and Brother Jonathan

(July 16, 1842) admired his quaintness, simplicity, and

truth of sentiment, calling them traits which would make

his fame live far longer than that of many a poet now


thought greater. Nearly every New York newspaper which

included any literary matter contained during 1842 at least

a selection from Tennyson's Poems with a brief prefatory

comment. 21 Every known comment was favorable. Many

lacked thought; none lacked praise.

One of the strongest feelings produced by the new poems

in America was that of grief over the many revisions of the

early poems. The same feeling was expressed by periodicals

in England, and often, strangely enough, by those which

earlier could find no good word for the first poems. 22 The

American feeling, however, was borrowed from no one.

When Sophia Peabody found the lines from "The Lady of

Shalott," which she had illustrated in a sketch, altered out

of existence, she was sincerely shocked. Her sister, Elizabeth

Peabody, who thought every single one of Tennyson's al-

terations a mistake, wanted her to send the drawing to Ten-

nyson as the best lesson to give him concerning his mutila-

tions. 23

Fanny Kemble could have no patience with the revisions.

In her sixteen-page review of the Poems for the Democratic

Review of New York, she devoted fifteen pages to the poems

of 1830 and 1833. 24 For page after page she argued bitterly

over the changes, quoting lengthy revised passages side by

side with their originals to show that the most beautiful had

been ruined and that the mediocre had been turned into

"unmitigated twaddle." Tennyson was moving both for-

ward and backward: the new poems — which Fanny never

got around to — showed growing genius, but the changes in

the early poems showed none at all. 25

The transcendental group received the new poems with

praise equal to that which they had accorded to the ear-

lier. At Brook Farm "the weeds were scratched out of the

ground" to the music of Tennyson's songs, 26 and for the

Dial Margaret Fuller wrote one of the most commendatory

reviews which the volumes received. 27 She missed several of


her "favorites for years past" which Tennyson had omitted,

but in his new poems she thought his genius was deeper and

more matured:

The light he sheds on the world is mellowed and tempered. If

the charm he threw around us before was somewhat too sen-

suous, it is not so now; he is deeply thoughtful; the dignified

and graceful man had displaced the Antinous beauty of the

youth. His melody is less rich, less intoxicating, but deepens, a

sweetness from the soul, sweetness as of the hived honey of fine

experiences, replaces the sweetness which captivated the ear

only, in many of his earlier verses. His range of subjects was

great before, and is now such that he would seem too merely

the amateur, but for the success in each, which says that the

same fluent and apprehensive nature, which threw itself with

such ease into the forms of outward beauty, has now been in-

tent rather on the secrets of the shaping spirit.

"Locksley Hall," "The Two Voices," "Dora," and "Go-

diva," Margaret Fuller liked exceedingly. 28 She even liked

"The Skipping-Rope." England had not "shown a due sense

of the merits of this poet" and had left to Americans "the

honor of rendering homage more readily to an accurate and

elegant intellect, a musical reception of nature, a high tend-

ency in thought, and a talent of singular fineness, flexibility,

and scope."

Emerson's estimate of Tennyson remained little changed

after 1842. If he had harsher words for the new volumes

than he had ever spoken of the earlier ones, on rare oc-

casions he gave them higher praise. Emerson's opinion was

still as unsettled as ever. Tennyson's poetry had a "monot-

ony of elegance." It wanted "a little north west wind, or a

north east storm"; it was "a lady's bower," a "musky green-

house." 29 And with this artificiality, was combined more

skill in craftsmanship than real genius. Although "A perfect

music-box for all manner of delicate tones and rhythms,"

Tennyson lacked matter. His reader remembered beautiful

lines and not the scope of the poem. 30 But, on the other side


of the ledger, Emerson consistently praised "Ulysses" as

poetry of the highest order and wondered whether there

was taste in all England to do justice to it. Others of the

poems, too, were "liberating": "Locksley Hall" and "The

Talking Oak" gave him "a momentary sense of freedom and

power." 31

For the Dial, Emerson wrote a second review of the

Poems/ 2 several months later than Margaret Fuller's, and

a comparison of the two reviews shows strikingly the differ-

ence between Emerson's mild commendation of the poems

and his followers' unrestrained enthusiasm. Emerson was

the prime mover of Tennyson's American fame, but his

highest praise of Tennyson never rivaled that accorded by

John Sullivan Dwight, James Freeman Clarke, or Margaret

Fuller. Emerson's review in the Dial exemplifies his general


Tennyson's compositions are not so much poems as studies in

poetry, or sketches after the styles of sundry old masters. He is

not the husband who builds the homestead after his own neces-

sity, from foundation stone to chimney-top and turret, but a

tasteful bachelor who collects quaint stair cases and groined

ceilings. We have no right to such superfineness. We must not

make our bread of pure sugar. . . . But let us not quarrel

with our benefactors. Perhaps Tennyson is too quaint and ele-

gant. What then? It is long since we have as good a lyrist; it

will be long before we have his superior. 33

No one, either in England or America, surpassed Edgar

Allan Poe in superlative praise of Tennyson in the years

just after 1842. Poe knew of Tennyson before that date and

spoke of him casually as if everyone else did, but apparently

never reviewed the poems in his magazines. 34 If the loud

praise of Tennyson by the transcendentalists, whom Poe

hated, caused Poe to withhold his commendation then, cer-

tainly nothing restrained him after 1842. Soon after the new

poems appeared, he professed for them "a reverence un-


bounded." "Morte d' Arthur," "Locksley Hall," "The Sleep-

ing Beauty," "The Lady of Shalott," "The Lotos-Eaters,"

"Oenone," and many others were "not surpassed, in all that

gives to Poetry its distinctive value, by the compositions of

any one living or dead." For those critics who cavilled at

Tennyson's quaintness, or what they chose to term affecta-

tion, Poe had no sympathy. Tennyson's quaintness sprang

from a keen perception of beauty, which is never "without

some strangeness in its proportions." No true poet would

deny "that he feels impressed, sometimes even to tears, by

many of those very affectations which he is impelled by the

prejudice of his education, or the cant of his reason to con-

demn." 35 Later Poe felt that "the injustice done in America

to the magnificent genius of Tennyson" was "one of the

worst sins for which the country has to answer." 36

It is difficult to see the American injustice in view of the

fact that the English critics had not yet begun to equal in

praise the pace set by the Americans, but if injustice there

was, Poe went a long way toward correcting it. He wrote in

December, 1844:

I am not sure that Tennyson is not the greatest of poets. The

uncertainty attending the public conception of the term

"poet" alone prevents me from demonstrating that he is. Other

bards produce effects which are, now and then, otherwise pro-

duced than by what we call poems; but Tennyson an effect

which only a poem does. His alone are idiosyncratic poems.

By the enjoyment or non-enjoyment of the "Morte D'Arthur,"

or of the "Aenone" [Poe usually spelled it thus], I would test

any one's ideal sense. 37

And but one year later, Poe wrote a brief notice of Ticknor's

second edition of the Poems:

This is a very neat, and altogether tasteful new edition of a

poet, who (in our own humble, but sincere opinion) is the

greatest that ever lived. We are perfectly willing to undergo

all the censure which so heretical an opinion may draw down

upon us. 38


Poe is often referred to as "the first American author to

welcome Tennyson." 39 That, he was not, but no one before

or after exceeded his praise. Poe stands after Emerson as

the second milestone in the progress of Tennyson's reputa-

tion in America. Like Emerson, Poe did much to spread

abroad the knowledge and love of Tennyson; and, unlike

Emerson, Poe never wavered in his support. Bayard Taylor,

later one of the most devoted of Tennyson's admirers, got

his first inspiration from Poe. Having read Poe's praise of

the 1842 volume, he sought for a copy, was dazzled by its

brilliance, and read till his eyes ached. 40 Thomas Holley

Chivers, deluged by Poe with praise of Tennyson in con-

versation and correspondence, was slowly brought to the

point of joining in Tennyson's praise.

Chivers' first reaction to the Poems of 1842 had been

extremely unfavorable, and when during a visit to Poe in

New York in 1845 he heard Poe refer to Tennyson as "one

of the greatest Poets that ever lived," his immediate reply

was, "My God! Poe! how can you say that? . . . Why his

Poems are as effeminate as a phlegmatic fat baby." 41 Evi-

dently the two argued vehemently on the subject, for after

Chivers returned home he wrote in apology:

The remarks which I made to you in regard to Tennyson's

Poems, were not intended to be critical, as I was too much fa-

tigued always when I saw you to talk as I could were you with

me now. "The Gardener's Daughter"; "Recollections of the

Arabian Nights"; and "Locksley Hall," are the best. He is a

lofty imitator of Shelley, without a tithe of his force. He pos-

sesses fine ideality, but there is too much conventional gro-

tesqueness of abandon, with too little artistical skill in him to

be compared with Shelley. If you think he is even a musical

imitator of Shelley, just get his Poems and disabuse your mind

at once. He has fine ideality, but not the artistical force of

Home. One of his greatest and unpardonable faults consists in

his not appealing, in any understandable language, to any of

the most universal feelings of the heart of Man. He does not


sing Truth — that Angel-mission for the fulfilment of which the

Poet was sent down by God out of Heaven. 42

Chivers' telling Poe to get the Poems as if Poe had hardly

seen them is amusing. The "disabusing" swung rapidly in

the other direction. The next month Chivers was writing,

as if prompted, "There is ... a more elaborate perfection

in the Poems of Tennyson than in any Poet that ever

lived." 43

The two most unfavorable reviews accorded the Poems of

1842 by American literary periodicals were written by

critics of widely diverse experience and environment:

Cornelius C. Felton, Professor of Greek in Harvard College,

and Henry Charles Lea, a nineteen-year-old Philadelphia

school boy. They had had one experience in common: both

had read John Wilson Croker's review of the 1833 Poems

in the London Quarterly. Felton's review appeared in No-

vember, 1842, in the Christian Examiner, the periodical

which had warmly welcomed Tennyson four years earlier.

A staunch representative of the old school of criticism,

Felton bitterly opposed the coming of new poetic influences,

and that opposition is sufficient explanation of his hostility

to Tennyson. 44 Nevertheless, there are matters which make

the review remarkable: Felton's closest associates were

enthusiastic about Tennyson, 45 and the American editor

and ardent sponsor of the Poems was Charles Stearns

Wheeler, tutor in Felton's department at Harvard.

In his review Felton harshly satirized Tennyson both as

a poet and as a person:

He is a dainty poet. We cannot help fancying him to be alto-

gether finical in his personal habits. He is a sweet gentleman,

and delights to gaze upon his image in a glass; his hair is prob-

ably long, and carefully curled; he writes in white kid gloves,

on scented paper; perhaps he sleeps in yellow curl-papers. We

are certain he lisps.


His verses, filled with "sugary sentimentalities," outran

"the simplicity of Mother Goose." He would never write in

"a direct, unambiguous, and plain fashion, as the older and

better poets did." But, Felton assured Tennyson, he had

genius, and better poetry than he had yet written was "un-

questionably within the range of his powers."

The second of the hostile reviews, appearing in the

Southern Literary Messenger two years later, was even more

in the Croker tradition than was Felton's. 46 Lea was widely

read for his age, knew some Latin, worshiped Byron, but

nothing that he had read about Tennyson later than the

reviews by North and Croker had made any impression

upon him. Lea's review is a shallow imitation both in man-

ner and in matter. Ideas and expressions are lifted from

Croker. Lea even quoted the lines "To Christopher North,"

which were not reprinted in 1842 and which he obviously

got from Croker's article. Lea's review is a clear instance

of American criticism's slavishly following the English in

regard to Tennyson, but it cannot be used to indicate a

trend. Probably there is not another such example in an

American literary periodical of any significance, and pos-

sibly not another anywhere.

Lea thought the poems of Tennyson were made up of

pilfered thoughts almost smothered beneath piles of mean-

ingless words. "Oriana" was an amusing attempt at pathos;

"The Miller's Daughter" was a "wretchedly paraphrastic

translation of Anacreon"; "A Dream of Fair Women" was a

"silly abortion"; and "The May Queen," one of the "least

silly poems," was spoiled by the "snake-like line" which

closed each stanza. Tennyson should write no more:

He would confer a benefit, not only on the world but on him-

self, if he would only convert his pen into a pruning hook, and

his inkstand into a watering-pot; for, though his vanity would

no longer be gratified by seeing his own name in print, except

as the cultivator of enormous pumpkins and gigantic straw-


berries, yet he might gratify a spirit of large benevolence by

raising two blades of grass where one grew before, and his rest

would be no longer broken by remorse at sending "such reams

of blank among the sons of men."

Lea closed the review with the regret that the poems were

meeting with a "ready and extensive sale" in this country

and an apology to the reader "for having detained him so

long over so poor and fruitless a subject."

American periodicals were never very careful to keep

their opinions consistent. A year earlier than Lea's review

the Southern Literary Messenger had reviewed the Poems

with high praise: Tennyson possessed "decided ideal tend-

encies and pure sensibilities" with an uncommon taste in

the choice and arrangement of words, and therefore the

Messenger took pleasure in commending the poems to such

of its readers ''as would commune with one, who, whatever

faults may belong to him, is not only a genuine poet, but

one of more individuality than any who has appeared for a

considerable period." 47 Such inconsistencies were common.

By June, 1845, tne Knickerbocker had completely reversed

its opinion of the 1842 Poems twice. 48

As would be expected, the general trend of opinion was

toward a greater appreciation of Tennyson. Coming in 1842

and bearing the name of a well known scholar, Felton's re-

view met with few retorts. Two years later Lea's review

aroused more disapproval. 49 And soon no low evaluation

could appear in a place of prominence, no matter how well

known the critic might be, without drawing attack from

many quarters. When Rufus W. Griswold in his Poets and

Poetry of England in the Nineteenth Century gravely as-

sured his readers that Tennyson's poems had "enough

intrinsic merit, probably, to secure him a permanent place

in the third or fourth rank of contemporary English

poets," 50 he aroused a long lasting storm of disapproval.

Later editions of Griswold's work — as late as 1853 — re-


tained the biographical notice of Tennyson unaltered; so

for years to come the estimate was periodically refuted. 51

One of the most influential American reviews of Tenny-

son had its origin in a refutation of Griswold: that of Edwin

P. Whipple for the American Whig Review. 52 Calling

Griswold's phrase, "third or fourth rank," an "amusing

slip of the pen," Whipple defended Tennyson at points

where he had been most attacked:

. . . nothing can be more incorrect than to call any poem of

Tennyson's unmeaning. Such a charge simply implies a lack

in the critic's mind, not in the poet's. The latter always means

something, in everything he writes; and the form in which it is

embodied is chosen with the most careful deliberation. It

seems to us that the purely intellectual element in Tennyson's

poetry, has been overlooked, owing perhaps to the fragility of

some of his figures and the dreariness of outline apparent in

others. Many think him to be a mere rhapsodist, fertile in

nothing but a kind of melodious empiricism. No opinion is

more contradicted by the fact. Examine his poetry minutely,

and the wonderful artistical finish becomes evident. There are

few authors who will bear the probe of analysis better.

Nearly all of the American periodicals of literary signifi-

cance noticed Tennyson's Poems of 1842, and a majority of

the notices were highly favorable. The New Englander gave

the poems a long review, listed page after page of faults and

excellences, thought "naturalness" and "manliness" among

his principal charms, and concluded that Tennyson was a

poet after its "own heart." 53 Henry T. Tuckerman wrote

for the Columbian Lady's and Gentleman's Magazine of

New York a review praising Tennyson's refined sentiment,

felicitous language, and love for Truth. 54 In a compre-

hensive article for the Knickerbocker, Charles A. Bristed

argued not only that Tennyson was the first poet of his age

but also that placed "in any age, among any men, he would

still be a great poet." 55 And the Orion in far away Penfield,

Georgia, noticed the poems and approved. 56


In this wide recognition by the literary periodicals, there

was but one glaring exception: the North American Re-

view. Henry Charles Lea had offered his scurrilous article

to the Review, but the Review had rejected it, not because

of any disagreement with Lea's opinion, but because "it is

not worth while to gibbet a man who is destined to fall into

rapid oblivion." 57 The North American Review took pleas-

ure in introducing to the American public Carlyle, Brown-

ing, Elizabeth Barrett. But with Tennyson, it waited for the

fall. It ignored not only the Poems of 1842, but also The

Princess and In Memoriam. Not until October, 1855, did

it capitulate, with a review of Maud. That review was

complimentary. But by that time Tennyson's fame had be-

come so firmly established that the added recognition could

hardly be felt.


The American reception of the Poems of 1842 was un-

doubtedly influenced to some extent by the British reaction

to the volumes as expressed in periodicals and individual

literary works. The British periodicals were being widely

circulated in America both in their original editions and

in American reprints. The Tennyson reviews were being

read in them, and the American eclectic magazines were re-

printing some of the Tennyson reviews to offer another

means of making them available to Americans. 58 Since it is

easier to copy criticism than to originate it, American re-

viewers naturally did some copying; however, the influence

of the British reviews of Tennyson upon the American has

been greatly exaggerated.

The high praise of Tennyson in American reviews was

not copied from the British, for it was not there to be copied.

The British reviews of the Poems of 1842 were favorable

only in comparison with the caustic reviews of the earlier


volumes. Although many of the reviewers were Tennyson's

personal friends, they were cautious and hesitant, awaiting

public approval before committing themselves. As Fanny

Kemble said in 1844, the English critics were following

rather than leading the public opinion of the Poems. 59 Such

was not the case in America. American reviewers had praised

the early poems long before they had become available in

a sufficient quantity for the public to form any opinion,

and after 1842 the reviewers, with a few exceptions, re-

doubled their praise. Even a casual comparison of the most

laudatory British reviews 60 with the reviews by Poe, Whip-

ple, or Margaret Fuller will show how far ahead the Ameri-

cans were in commendation.

It is true, of course, that the differences between the

American and the British reviews of Tennyson are not

traceable entirely to differences in the evaluation of the

poems. Much of the dissimilarity is inherent in the contrast

between American and British periodical criticism. Slow

to condemn and quick to commend, American magazines

of the period had a reputation for overpraise. 61 On the

other hand, the established British magazines had built up

a tradition for vitriolic attacks. John Sterling's review of the

Poems of 1842 was, for the London Quarterly, quite compli-

mentary; in Graham's Magazine, the New Englander, or the

Knickerbocker it would have been, by comparison, barely


The American and the British reviewers looked at the

Poems of 1842 from different points of view. Americans

considered the poems for what they were, but the British

looked upon them as stepping stones to something greater.

Tennyson, thought the British, had completed the ground

work and now should find a great subject worthy of his

powers. 62 Such criticism was what George William Curtis

was referring to in 1844 when he complained that critics,

unable to realize that a "diamond is no less wonderful than


the world," were demanding that Tennyson write an epic. 63

The British took Tennyson more seriously than did the

Americans. They were already talking of his duties to his

age, and the reviewers felt it incumbent upon them to in-

struct him in the fulfilment of his promise. Feeling no such

obligation, the Americans tended merely to enjoy and

praise the poems, emphasizing frequently the light, airy

feminine portraits, which most of the British reviewers

thought pretty, but too trivial for much consideration.

American reviews were shorter, less detailed, and less

studied than the British. In the former, Tennyson would

have found many passages to give him immediate pleasure;

in the latter he found many to give him instruction, which

he liked not.

It has already been seen that some American reviewers

of 1842 were belatedly copying North and Croker. The

comment that Tennyson was at times affected and effemi-

nate, which ran through American reviews, was doubtless

borrowed in large part from British criticism, especially the

earlier. Many American reviewers, however, sincerely felt

that affectation was the chief fault of Tennyson and his

school. Other poets who were considered his followers were

accused of the fault even more than was Tennyson. Prob-

ably what the American reviewers owed to the earlier

British critics outweighed the influence of all the British

reviews of 1842. The influence of the later British reviews

seems to have been slight.

Apparently of greater influence upon America's attitude

toward Tennyson were several English books which were

widely read in America. Chief among these was R. H.

Home's A New Spirit of the Age, a book of literary criticism

published in London in 1844 ana " republished in New

York the same year. 64 In a twenty-page chapter devoted to

Tennyson, Home assigned to him a high place and declared

that he was destined for an even higher. Home praised


especially Tennyson's originality, his delicacy and refine-

ment, and his sweetness of melody. Henry Charles Lea

scornfully referred to the chapter as an attempt to prove

that Tennyson was a greater poet than Byron. 65 Most Ameri-

cans, however, seem to have been highly pleased with

Home's criticism. The magazines reviewed A New Spirit

of the Age favorably, and Graham's singled out the chapter

on Tennyson for special praise: "It is, altogether, the most

sympathizing and most analytical review of Tennyson which

has appeared, and with some abatements for exaggeration,

the most searching and correct." 66

Doubtless many Americans got their first view of Tenny-

son the man and his environment from William Howitt's

Homes and Haunts of the Most Eminent British Poets. 67

Few of Tennyson's American admirers saw him earlier than

Emerson's brief visit in 1848, 68 and except for Emerson and

Henry Reed, the Philadelphia publisher, 69 few Americans

had gained any knowledge of Tennyson through intimate

correspondence with his English friends. It is natural, then,

that American lovers of Tennyson should have read with

much interest Howitt's chapter on Tennyson. Howitt de-

scribed Tennyson's ancestry and early life, his homes, the

settings of his poems, and his personal habits. Along with

such facts, Howitt reviewed the poems and showed for Ten-

nyson a strong admiration, some of which he possibly had

borrowed from an American, Charles Stearns Wheeler,

who had read and praised the poems to him in Heidelberg

in 1842. 70

English criticism of quite a different sort reached Amer-

icans in 1846 in Bulwer-Lytton's long poem, The New

Timon, A Romance of London. 11 Through the influence

of his friends, Tennyson had been granted a pension by Sir

Robert Peel in 1845, and Bulwer-Lytton thought that an

older and more widely recognized writer would have been

more deserving of the award. An abrupt digression in The


New Timon (II, 48-85) crudely attacked Tennyson's pen-

sion and Tennysonian poetry in general. Tennyson was de-

scribed as "outbabying Wordsworth, and outglittering

Keates [sic]" and as "School-Miss Alfred" venting "her

chaste delight" on "darling little rooms so warm and

bright." A footnote quoted lines from "O Darling Room"

in order to show "to what depth of silliness the human in-

tellect can descend." This poet, The New Timon em-

phasized, was the "puling Muse" which Peel did "with

pudding plump." The digression was brief, but it soon

became the best known passage in the poem. So universal

was the indignation at the passage that within a few months

of the poem's appearance a new edition was published from

which the opprobrious lines had disappeared. They were,

however, far from forgotten. For years the early editions

had a special value because of the lines on Tennyson, and

the second American edition, issued after the revision, still

retained the notorious lines. 72

It is not likely that The New Timon detracted from Ten-

nyson's rising fame in America. In fact, the ill-natured at-

tack and the strong indignation which it aroused may well

have helped Tennyson's rise. Writing in the Christian Ex-

aminer, Cyrus A. Bartol thought the poem "a wholesome

protest against the feeble sentimentality and slender orna-

ments of the whole Tennyson school," 73 but his was not

the general attitude. Lowell in the North American Review

called the lines on Tennyson "presumptuous and in bad

taste." 74 And a reviewer in the Southern Literary Messen-

ger bitterly denounced the anonymous author for his "pe-

culiar spite": before "pouring out his scorn for Mr. Tenny-

son, he should have reflected on one thing; that while the

author of 'The New Timon' is only a man of ability, Mr.

Tennyson is a man of genius." 75

The New Timon was one of the last of the contemptuous

treatments of Tennyson. No longer tolerated by the public,


such attacks were giving way to genial good-natured bur-

lesquing of Tennyson's eccentricities. In this field America

was almost entirely dependent upon England. Almost one

hundred per cent of the parodies of Tennyson appearing

in American periodicals before 1865 were copied from the

British, and those that were not, hardly deserve the name

of parody. Many years were yet to pass before America pro-

duced clever parodies of Tennyson or anybody else.

British parodies of Tennyson began to reach America

even before the Poems of 1842. In January of that year,

Brother Jonathan reprinted from George Cruikshank's

Omnibus a parody of "Mariana," 76 and in the following

year the Knickerbocker printed Bon Gaultier's "To Isaac

Tomkins' Child," a parody of "Lilian." 77 Two Scotchmen,

William Edmondstone Aytoun and Theodore Martin, had

formed in 1842 a partnership under the pseudonym "Bon

Gaultier," and during the next three years they printed in

British periodicals some of the most popular parodies of

Tennyson. The only one of their poems which attracted

much attention in America was "The Laureate," a parody

of "The Merman." 78 When in 1845 the collected parodies

by Bon Gaultier were published in London as The Book of

Ballads, the book went almost unnoticed in America. There

seems to have been no American edition till 1852, 79 and

then the reviews were more unfavorable than favorable.

Many Americans were shocked by the parodies of Tenny-

son. "The Laureate" they still liked, and the

Lightsome, brightsome, cousin mine!

Easy, breezy Caroline!


But Sartains Magazine thought that "Locksley Hall" was

"travestied in too shocking a manner to allow of a single

line in quotation," 81 and the Southern Literary Messen-

ger thought this whole group was flat, stupid, and mali-


cious. 82 Only the genial imitations found favor with Amer-


Apparently Americans wrote no real parodies of Tenny-

son's 1842 poems. The only things that approached bur-

lesque were the careful and obvious imitations. 83 The fol-

lowing imitation of "Oriana" is characteristic:

On yesternight awhile the pallid moon,


Was passing thro' her fleecy clouds, at noon,


I saw thee with thy grave clothes on,

Sitting beneath the cypress' shade, alone,

On the gray moss of a broken stone,

Orihula. 84

The poem continued in like manner for five more stanzas.

It was published with no mention of Tennyson or of any

intention to parody, and the reader can never be quite cer-

tain whether the burlesque is intended or unintended.

An imitation of "Lilian" by H. W. Parker is also charac-

teristic. The poem copied its prototype closely but made

little fun of it:

Lofty little Emily

Dimpled, dazzling Emily,

Throned within my inmost heart,

There thou shalt be, as thy art,

My soul-exalting, pure ideal.

Ever present to my thought,

Mine eyes shall wake and close

On thy image, though unsought.

Unfading, changeless, still it glows, —

Still it sparkles, dimples, dances,

In my waking, sleeping fancies.

As if, no phantom, it were red.

I cannot clasp nor follow it;

For, like thyself, 'twill ever flit

With a far off goddess-grace,


With chaining, yet forbidding, eye;

I bless, I ban that little face,

Floating ever in airy space;

I frown and mutter — then smile and sigh;

I cannot love thee

Yet must adore thee,

Majestic little Emily. 85

American readers of periodicals in the eighteen-forties and

fifties seem to have enjoyed such verses much more than

they did parodies, and the parodies they saw little of. In the

late eighteen-fifties, American newspapers and magazines

printed several parodies of "The Eagle," "The Charge of

the Light Brigade," and "Come into the Garden, Maud,"

but nearly all of them were copied from the British. 86

The talk of a Tennysonian school of poets, which had

begun before 1842, continued thereafter. Lowell, Longfel-

low, Poe, and many other Americans were designated as

Tennyson's followers, but no name was so inseparably

linked with Tennyson's as was that of Elizabeth Barrett.

Nearly every American reviewer of Elizabeth Barrett's A

Drama of Exile and Other Poems (1845) referred to a re-

lationship with Tennyson. 87 Poe warned her that she was

following Tennyson too closely. 88 Henry Charles Lea dis-

coursed about the "nominalists," a title he had coined for

poets who run after shadows and deal with "things earthly

but in name"; Tennyson was the "most outre" of the nom-

inalists, but "his twin-sister, Miss Barrett" was close by his

side. 89 So often was she called his sister that the Democratic

Review in January, 1845, felt called upon to explain that

she was so only figuratively, and not actually. But after a

few years the two began to part company. Such talk as Lea's

grew less frequent, and Tennyson was coming to be thought

of as standing alone at the head of English poets, an idea

greatly quickened in America by his next work: the med-

ley of Princess Ida and her university.

Chapter III



cerning Tennyson's preparation of a startling and ex-

traordinary work seem not to have reached America till after

The Princess had been published. On December 25, 1847,

the date upon which London newspapers announced the

poem as that day published, Duyckinck's New York Liter-

ary World announced that William D. Ticknor and Com-

pany of Boston would republish it "as soon as it is received

in this country"; and on February 10, 1848, the Boston

Daily Chronotype noticed as "yesterday published" The

Princess, "which is destined to make a sensation in this

metropolis, where the 'woman question' is so well up." x

Just how great a sensation The Princess made upon its

arrival in America is difficult to estimate now. Evidently,

however, the sale of the book was rapid. Ticknor seems not

to have published a second separate edition of The Princess

till 1855, Dut tne nrst was reprinted several times in 1848.

Longfellow wrote in his journal on February 25, 1848, that

on a visit to Ticknor's office he had "found [James T.] Fields

correcting the proofs of the second edition of Tennyson's

Princess, — the first, one thousand copies, having been sold

within a few weeks"; 2 and Graham's Magazine stated in

May of that year that The Princess had already passed

"through three editions." 3 Also, Ticknor was including

The Princess in all of his editions of Tennyson's Poems

between 1848 and 1855. The fact that a few months after


Ticknor's first edition of The Princess he rushed through

the press a new edition of Poems to include it may be at-

tributed in part to the rapid sale of The Princess. 4 '

Ticknor's first edition of The Princess was a neat little

volume which, though differing slightly in size and pagina-

tion from the first London edition, was equally as attractive

a book as Moxon's. Nearly every reviewer praised the print-

ing and format of the book, and N. P. Willis's Home jour-

nal (September 23, 1848), which had earlier proclaimed

Ticknor and Company "the Moxon establishment of Amer-

ica," felt that this volume thoroughly justified the parallel.

It must be remembered that the text of this first edition

of The Princess was quite different from the text as it stands

now. The entire poem was in blank verse; even the three

songs which it contained were unrimed. Not until the third

London edition, which appeared in February, 1850, were

the six intercalary rimed songs added, and The Princess did

not reach its final form till the fifth London edition, Octo-

ber, 1852. 5 No American edition included the songs until

Ticknor's Poems, published in late 1853, 6 and apparently

the final text of the poem was not published in America

till 1857. 7


Americans liked The Princess from the beginning. News-

paper reviewers praised it immediately. The day following

its publication in America, the Boston Daily Chronotype

pronounced it "perhaps the most exquisite and truthful

painting of female character, that was ever thrown upon

canvas." Though objecting to the "stereotyped" love story

and to certain prosaic lines, the Boston Daily Atlas thought

that The Princess would become a "general favorite," for

"it charms the reader and carries him along with it, so that

he is loath to leave it unfinished. The more he reads it, the


better he likes it." 8 And the praise of the New York Daily

Tribune knew no bounds. In a manner suggestive of Mar-

garet Fuller, who was then in Europe, the anonymous re-

viewer declared The Princess the "noblest" of Tennyson's


If we were to express the feeling of satisfaction with which

we have just read every word of this beautiful, charming and

profound little book we should be thought extravagant. Nor

does it stand in need of any enthusiastic commendation to se-

cure for it a very large circle of readers, for of all living poets

hardly any has a wider or more desirable reputation in this

country than TENNYSON; the mere announcement of a new

Poem from his pen will send thousands on an immediate pil-

grimage to their respective bookstores. . . . The poem . . .

is full of those delicate, subtle master-strokes of original genius

for which Tennyson is remarkable. 9

In general, Americans took Tennyson at his word and

considered the new poem "a medley." If it mixed tragedy

and comedy, the real and the fantastic, that was to be ex-

pected. Only those readers, who were looking for "a regu-

lar poem," thought Peterson's Magazine, would be dis-

appointed. It was "a medley like that of the milky way,

studded with stars innumerable ... a string of pearls

to the very end." 10 Graham's Magazine thought that the

poem was "properly called" a medley because it brought

"the manners and ideas of the chivalric period into con-

nection with those of the present day." And because of

this mingling there was "no less fascination in the general

conduct of the story. . . . The whole poem is bathed in

beauty, and invites perusal after perusal." 1X Medley or no

medley, the narrative itself held the reader's attention

throughout: Henry B. Hirst's Illustrated Monthly Courier

questioned whether it had "ever read a poem in which the

chain of interest is so well preserved," 12 and James Russell

Lowell felt that "it must argue a poverty in ourselves if

we cannot see it as a harmonious whole." 13


Some reviewers were more concerned with another kind

of admixture which The Princess represented: the com-

pounding of pure poetry and a utilitarian purpose. They

were concerned with it to defend it. One reviewer ex-

pounded at length the thesis that The Princess was a "work

of art," that it was beautiful and entertaining, but that it

was not "first-rate poetry." A versified moral treatise might

be eminently poetic, but it was not, therefore, a poem.

Since, however, such a sentiment was not "the doctrine of

the day," the reviewer was not disposed to "quarrel with

Mr. Tennyson because he steps from the Delphic tripod

into the pulpit of the popular lecturer." It seemed "un-

grateful," the reviewer feared, for him to criticize at all

this excellent work which had given him such a "pleasant

hour." His excuse was that the London Examiner in an

otherwise commendable approval of Tennyson had made

one slip: the statement that "there is hardly an element of

first-rate poetry, which is not contained in the Princess."

Against such a lack of discrimination in high places, he

had to "speak out in a kind of desperation." 14

John Sullivan Dwight felt that the most gratifying qual-

ity of The Princess was that it showed Tennyson giving

his poetry a purpose. The "faintly smiling Adelines" and

the "airy, fairy Lilians" were now becoming "flesh and

blood existences in true functions of life." Mingled with

his earlier admiration of Tennyson, Dwight had had one

fear which made him shudder:

There lurked a danger in the very tendencies which formed

the beauty and the genuineness of his creations; the danger of

excess, in the direction of mere beauty, of an existence too ex-

clusively ideal and select, and of becoming spell-bound, as all

must, who serve the ideal without grappling with the real.

Tennyson's "poetic visions of society" were not made "any

the less poetry by becoming social science." Objecting to

The Princess on the grounds that it combined pure poetry


and a purposeful contribution was like objecting to the

use of ''the scientific construction of the scale of tones and

laws of harmony," which made the creations of Handel,

Mozart, and Beethoven possible. 15

It was of this problem that another of Tennyson's ad-

mirers, Christopher P. Cranch, seems to have been think-

ing as he wrote his poem, "The Bird and the Bell," in 1848

and 1849. 16 That he reached much the same decision as

Dwight's in regard to The Princess is shown in his

poem, written years later, "On Re-reading Tennyson's

Princess." 17

To Edgar Allan Poe, Tennyson in 1848 was still the

greatest poet that ever lived. Tennyson's predominant ex-

cellence was still the purity of his art:

I call him, and think him the noblest of poets — not because

the impressions he produces are at all times, the most pro-

found — not because the poetical excitement which he induces

is at all times the most intense — but because it is, at all times,

the most ethereal — in other words, the most elevating and

most pure. No poet is so little of the earth, earthy. 18

Following this passage in "The Poetic Principle," Poe

quoted the song, "Tears, Idle Tears," from The Princess

to prove his point. John R. Thompson remembered after

Poe's death the delight with which Poe recited the little

song again and again. The lines,

. . . when unto dying eyes

The casement slowly grows a glimmering square,


Poe pronounced unsurpassed by any image in writing. 1

Of all the qualities of The Princess, its exquisite music

and lyrical blank verse received highest praise. Tennyson's

use of blank verse for lyrical purposes in such songs as

"Tears, Idle Tears" and "O Swallow, Swallow" was an in-

novation. Possibly influenced by Theocritus, Tennyson had

used blank verse for lyrical purposes in two shorter poems


but never with the confidence he showed in The Princess.™

Longfellow's first impression of The Princess was not sat-

isfying, but the music enchanted him:

Fanny read it in the evening. Strange enough! a university of

women! A gentle satire, in the easiest and most flowing blank

verse, with two delicious unrhymed songs, and many exquisite

passages. I went to bed, after it, with delightful music ringing

in my ears; yet half disappointed in the poem, though not

knowing why. There is a discordant note somewhere. 21

The music of The Princess rang also in the ears of Bayard

Taylor. So much did he feel its intoxication that it fright-

ened him. He wrote to his fiancee:

I had the misfortune to be deeply intoxicated yesterday —

with Tennyson's new poem, "The Princess," which I shall

bring to thee when I return home. I dare not keep it with me.

For the future, for a long time at least, I dare not read Tenny-

son. His poetry would be the death of mine, and, indeed, a

pervadence of his spirit would ruin me for the great purposes

of life. His intense perception of beauty haunts me for days,

and I cannot drive it from me. 22

Even Thomas Powell, author of the only definitely un-

favorable American review of The Princess which has come

to hand, bore witness to its musical quality: "It is impos-

sible for a true poet to write a long poem without reveal-

ing some snatches of his genius, and, although generally

speaking, this poem is a mournful instance of mistaken

powers, it abounds in fine passages." 23 In the few para-

graphs devoted to The Princess in his The Living Authors

of England (1849), Powell called the poem Tennyson's

"greatest failure," without, however, supporting his posi-

tion. His review was little more than a summary of the


Along with the general praise of Tennyson's language

came criticism, always, however, outweighed by the com-


mendation. Dwight Sprague's American Literary Maga-

zine thought the blank verse "sometimes obscure and often

abrupt; somewhat as an English Tacitus might be." Dis-

jointed clauses and misplaced nominatives perplexed the

reader; "yet with these blemishes there are many beautiful

and melodious lines, showing the skillful artist." 24 John

R. Thompson wrote in the Southern Literary Messenger

that Tennyson sinned "against the dignity of the muse by

frequently resorting to a free and easy style — almost col-

loquial and in striking contrast with his more elevated

strains." Thompson repeated too the old criticism that Ten-

nyson was affected; but, he said, "this Medley abounds with

fresh poetical conceptions that cannot but delight every

reader of refined sympathy or delicate fancy." 25

That it did delight American readers is beyond question,

and one reason was the genial satire mixed with the seri-

ous element which never made it quite clear whether Ten-

nyson was defending the Woman's Rights movement or

making fun of it. Readers were thus enabled to give to it

the meaning which best suited their fancy. A Yale College

student thoroughly enjoyed The Princess because it ridi-

culed "with admirable truth and skill this horde of liter-

ary ladies, who always wear book-muslin." Like a "skillful

angler," Tennyson had "hooked them to his lines, and

drawing them out of their natural elements" had "displayed

them to us floundering uneasily in the basket of Science and

Literature." 26 Another reviewer found the same lesson:

the heart of a modern belle would always overrule her

head, as by right it should. 27 And still another, a staunch

opponent of Woman's Rights, devoted half of his review

to a tirade against the movement. The greatest beauty of

the poem was its "excellent moral":

All the sciences and all the ologies will not satisfy a woman's

heart. For which we are thankful. The studious little witches

in this manufactory of the new race of women, though


"gorged with knowledge," stuffed with sciences and loaded

with languages, were not contented with their wisdom. . . .

Disappointed old maids and women who are only beardless,

petticoated men, may talk long and loudly of the equal rights

and the independence of their sex. But in the heart of a true

woman such theories have no place. "Love will still be lord

of all."

The close to the moral, the reviewer thought, was an ap-

propriate one, the Princess happily married and "her wild

follies" serving as "food for merry laughter." 28

On the other hand, Horace Greeley, a strong advocate

of equal rights for women, used it as one of the best argu-

ments for a "wider horizon" for women. 29 Godey's Lady's

Book in January, 1850, began a series of discussions of

woman's intellectual and moral influence with excerpts

from, and high praise of, The Princess. And crusaders for

feminine independence quoted passages from The Prin-

cess again and again. 30 In announcing a Woman's Rights

convention in 1853, the Home Journal reminded the ladies

where they could "find a whole armory of weapons, ready

made, finely wrought and beautifully polished": Tenny-

son's Princess contained "a score of passages on their side

of the question." 31

The reviewer in Peterson's Magazine explained suc-

cinctly how both factions were able to find argument to

their liking: it was the purpose of Tennyson to repudiate

"the modern idea that the sphere of woman is inferior to

that of man, or that she ever does good by stepping out

of it." 32 The Yale student had another explanation: read-

ers were to go to the poem for entertainment and not to

worry about its purpose. He closed his "Frolic with Ten-

nyson," which exhibited a style and judgment that would

do credit to a more experienced critic, by recounting his

pleasant hours with The Princess and extending to his fel-

low students an invitation:


Would you enjoy such a quiet dream, such a free and careless

reverie, you have but to follow my example. Lock your door

against intruders; build up a cheerful fire; throw yourself back

in your rocking chair, elevate your slippered feet to a level

with your head; clasp a cigar between your teeth; and read —

Tennyson's "PRINCESS." 33

So delighted were Americans with Tennyson's new poem

that their praise at times reached unreasoned extravagance.

The reviewer in the Philadelphia Illustrated Monthly

Courier, probably its co-editor, Henry B. Hirst, a close imi-

tator and strong admirer of Tennyson, soared oratorically

as he depicted Tennyson's rise:

Little by little, degree by degree, slow at first, but afterward

with a steady, manly stride, and lastly, with the triumphal

march of a conqueror, he seized upon the mind of England,

and took possession of the soil of Shakespeare. Here and there,

to be sure, lurked a caviller, a follower of the classic but life-

less, statue-like school of Pope — one of the Keats-killers. . . .

But these fellows were few, very few, and although they had

their day, like other dogs, that day was one of infinitesmal

duration. . . . Tennyson arose like a sun that can know no

setting. . . . [Then] one fine day "The Princess" appeared

. . . [and] there was marching and counter-marching [criti-

cism], with all the strategy of actual warfare, but it was all in

vain; "The Princess" remained and remains a poem that will

walk down the vista of posterity the Princess of all time.'


Nowhere in American criticism has been found anything

resembling the caustic British reviews which greeted The

Princess during the first few months after its publication. 35

The British reviewers were deeply disappointed. 36 They

were expecting a great work, which The Princess, they said,

was not. Tennyson was not fulfilling his "mission." 37 They

refused to accept the poem for what it was, "a medley." 38

Again they instructed Tennyson as they had done earlier,

and they could only trust that possibly he might still bene-

fit by the instruction. Again they would look forward to


his next work with the hope, now glimmering, that he

might yet produce a great work. 39 These reviewers had ad-

vanced little beyond those of ten years earlier. With few

exceptions, 40 it was not until two years after its publication

and after it had gained a hold on the reading public that

The Princess was received with favor by the English peri-


The three reviews — by Charles As tor Bristed, James Rus-

sell Lowell, and James Hadley — which might be singled

out as the most significant ones that The Princess received

in this country, all used as their theme the correction of

the harsh and stupid criticisms which British periodicals

had given it. Bristed made his review into a dialogue be-

tween himself and two fictitious characters, "Fred Peters"

and "The General." Peters had read the British reviews;

once he had seen notices in three separate London jour-

nals all the same day. The General had mingled with the

"literati in England," had noted their disappointment with

The Princess, and thought their feeling thoroughly justi-

fied. Into the mouths of these, Bristed put the stock criti-

cisms, and, one by one, he refuted them. The plot of The

Princess was absurd, they said; its subject was "too slight";

its language was unrefined; Tennyson was justly called

"namby-pamby." For all of these Bristed had answers. The

scenes called absurd he explained. As for the plot and sub-

ject, the poem was only intended as a "medley." The lan-

guage was appropriate to the action. And as for some

people's calling Tennyson "namby-pamby," that simply

showed that "some people are dummies." There the mat-

ter rested, and the gentlemen, still in disagreement, closed

their conversation with wafers and wine. 41

James Russell Lowell had read the harsh criticisms be-

fore he had read the poem, and with the fulmination of the

critics ringing in his ears, he had opened the little book with

a tremulous hand, but then all fears vanished:


We read the book through with a pleasure which heightened

to unqualified delight, and ended in admiration. The poem is

unique in conception and execution. It is one of those few in-

stances in literature where a book is so true to the idiosyncrasy

of its author that we cannot conceive of the possibility of its

being written by any other person, no matter how gifted.

Tennyson's conception was always clear, "his meaning ex-

actly adequate, and his finish perfect." With Tennyson

"perfection of form" seemed to be "a natural instinct, not

an attainment." The growth of the poem was as natural as

its plan was original. Its organization was perfect: "We

know of no other man who could have mingled the purely

poetical with the humorous in such entire sympathy as

nowhere to suggest even a suspicion of incongruity." Ten-

nyson's humor was like "a delicate flower which we can

perceive and enjoy, but which escapes definition." "In

short," said Lowell, "it is Tennyson's." The poem had

"repose and equilibrium," with "nowhere the least exag-

geration." The reader was never "distracted by the noise

of the machinery." No single beauty marred the reader's

perception of the poem's completeness. Its concentration

of imagery marked "the sincere artist" and was "worthy of

all praise." The Princess was Tennyson's best:

On the whole, we consider this to be the freest and fullest ex-

pression of Tennyson which we have had. The reader will

find in it all the qualities for which he is admirable so blended

and interfused as to produce a greater breadth of effect than

he had elsewhere achieved. The familiarity of some passages,

while it is in strict keeping with the character he assumes at the

outset, indicates also the singer at last sure of his audience, and

reposing on the readiness of their sympathies. 42

Coming a year later than the other two, the twenty-three-

page review by Professor James Hadley of Yale College

methodically analyzed the criticism which had gone be-

fore and gave one of the most logical defenses that The


Princess ever received, earlier or later. Systematically open-

ing his paragraphs with quoted or paraphrased criticisms

from British journals, Professor Hadley followed the criti-

cisms with his defenses of Tennyson's practice. The han-

dling of the stricture that Princess Ida was too pedantic

exemplifies Professor Hadley's manner:

Some are displeased with the pedantry, as they call it, of the

Princess, and vote her an intolerable blue. It is no wonder, cer-

tainly, that one shut out from the ordinary objects of attention

and pursuit among her sex, should seek to fill their place by

science: especially as a severer mental discipline is an important

feature in her favorite scheme. That it should figure in her con-

versation follows from the same conditions. What has she left

to talk of but her studies and her plans?

The other characters, the novel plot, the versification, and

the language were also discussed at length. The versatility

and freedom with which Tennyson used blank verse was

studied in detail. Tennyson had sometimes substituted a

trochaic for an iambic foot and had sometimes added an

extra syllable at the end of a line. Also, in his language Ten-

nyson had been unorthodox: ''He abounds in striking nov-

elties, in words, meanings and constructions seldom or

never found elsewhere." This adventurousness in both

versification and language, Professor Hadley thought, had

proved "happy boldness." The critics who had been startled

by the novel design and venture of The Princess would see

upon a second reading that those properties suited the poem

better than any others could. 43

Soon after these numerous and highly favorable Amer-

ican reviews of The Princess during 1848 and early 1849,

came the laudatory articles on The Princess in the lead-

ing British journals. 44 The British critics had undoubtedly

been swayed by public opinion. Also, they had probably

re-read the poem. Whether the American reviews, some

aimed so directly at the British, played any part in the shift


can only be conjectured. But at any rate it seems quite

clear that if there was any significant influencing of the one

group by the other, it went from America to Britain, and

not vice versa.


Tennyson's poems had been set to music in America as

early as 1844. In that year on a "pleasant October evening"

in the office of the Knickerbocker, Lewis Gaylord Clark

read "The May Queen" to William R. Dempster, the fa-

mous Scotch singer, and upon Clark's suggestion Demp-

ster composed a musical setting for the poem. 45 The can-

tata in three parts, dedicated to Clark and published by

Oliver Ditson of Boston in April, 1845, was tremendously

popular. 46 The Knickerbocker spoke in December of its

"unprecedentedly large sale," and a few months later an-

nounced that Dempster had been offered a thousand dol-

lars for the copyright. 47 Dempster sang his cantata in scores

of concerts in this country, 48 and other American singers,

including the famous Hutchinson family, added it to their

repertoire. 49 Already popular, 50 "The May Queen" soon

became one of the best known of Tennyson's poems. The

reviewer of The Princess in Sprague's American Literary

Magazine in May, 1848, digressed long enough to declare

that "at least in this country," "The May Queen" was bet-

ter known than any other and that "wedded to Dempster's

music," it had "made the poet's name familiar to everyone."

John Sullivan Dwight, who did not like Dempster, thought

that the music hurt the poem:

He [Dempster] has perpetuated the absurdity of lengthening

out a melody to match the whole of Tennyson's "May Queen"

— three mortal cantos, of some fourteen stanzas each! — tied for

half an hour in a forced marriage with such weakly sentimental

sort of melody as you may hear with little variation in all the


concert rooms, find printed on the counter of every music store.

It is a mistake, Mr. Dempster! Poetry like that does not need

music; and music should not trust to poetry to cover its own

nakedness of ideas. 51

But Dwight was far in the minority. Dempster contributed

to Tennyson's reputation in America. Both the cantata and

the poem were highly praised for years to come, and in

1848 the famous American composer, I. B. Woodbury,

wrote another musical setting for the popular poem. 52

Tennyson, then, was already known as a writer of songs

before the coming of The Princess, which was to make him

one of the most popular writers of brief lyrics for musical

settings. As The Princess first appeared, it contained three

songs, one of which — "Tears, Idle Tears" (IV, 21-40) —

gained immediate and long lasting popularity in America.

Scores of magazines and newspapers selected it as an ex-

ample of Tennyson's best, 53 and even reviewers who found

fault with the general structure of The Princess were en-

thusiastic about "Tears, Idle Tears." Quoting Poe as hav-

ing pronounced the song "unsurpassed by any piece of the

same length in the language," one reviewer, probably John

Esten Cooke, called it a "gem of uncommon beauty." The

Princess, he thought, was a unique "mixture of grandeur

and puerility," but this little lyric was all grandeur:

There is in many lines, apart from their meaning, a melody of

cadence which is the very reflection of mournful thought, and

dreamy pondering on past joys. The compression of thought ob-

servable in the phrases "divine despair" — "underworld" — and

"happy Autumn fields" is also uncommon — and this last image

is one on which a page of commentary might be written. 54

Within a few months after its appearance in America, I.

B. Woodbury prepared and published a musical setting

entitled "Tears Gentle Tears for the Days that Are No

More," 55 and from that garbled beginning, the poem be-

gan its career on American music sheets. Several other set-


tings followed Woodbury's, some using "Tears, Idle Tears"

and others "The Days that Are No More" as their titles.

Another of the original songs of The Princess, "O Swal-

low, Swallow," (IV, 75-98) also attracted some attention.

At least one American reviewer thought it more beautiful

than "Tears, Idle Tears," 56 and two early settings for it,

one entitled "The Messenger Swallow," were published in


It was in the third edition of The Princess that Tenny-

son inserted the six songs which are now so widely known.

A short rimed lyric was placed at the close of each of the

first six Parts of the poem. Usually designated by their first

lines, they were, in order: "As thro' the Land at Eve We

Went"; "Sweet and Low"; "The Splendor Falls on Cas-

tle Walls"; "Thy Voice Is Heard thro' Rolling Drums";

"Home They Brought Her Warrior Dead"; and "Ask Me

No More." During the interval between their appearance

in London in February, 1850, and their inclusion in an

American edition more than three years later, American

magazines and newspapers took pleasure in printing them

as rarities; 57 therefore, when Ticknor, Reed, and Fields

belatedly printed the revised Princess in their new edition

of Poems in late 1853, the songs were not unknown to Amer-

ican readers.

"Sweet and Low," or "The Cradle Song," seems to have

been most popular of all. In May, 1851, a musical setting

for it by William Vincent Wallace was published in New

York, and other settings followed soon afterward. In print-

ing the poem in its "Editor's Table," the Southern Literary

Messenger for March, 1853, styled it "one of Tennyson's

most graceful and musical productions":

Indeed it may be said to sing itself: Mr. Vincent Wallace . . .

could add nothing to its melody. Like many other of Tennyson's

smaller pieces, it has been leading a precarious life in the corners

of newspapers: — we think the readers of the Messenger will


thank us for rescuing it from the quickly perishing columns of

the daily press.

In 1854, Ferdinand C. Ewer, editor of the Pioneer, early

California literary magazine, quoted the "exquisite stanzas"

of "Sweet and Low" as a lesson to California would-be poets

on how to write pure poetry. 58 And in a contest conducted

by I. B. Woodbury's New York Musical Review, the sub-

scribers selected as their favorite song "Sweet and Low" in

the musical setting of Otto Dresel of Boston. 59

"The Splendor Falls on Castle Walls," or "The Bugle

Song," and "Ask Me No More" ranked next to "Sweet and

Low" in popularity. Harrison Millard's setting of "Ask Me

No More" published in Boston in 1856 sold extensively, 60

and "The Bugle Song," long before it was set to music in

America in 1857, was praised as the greatest of lyrics. The

Albion called it as noble a song "as ever the world [had]

heard." 61 Edwin P. Whipple in a fit of irritation over the

high praise which had been given to Alexander Smith's

Poems declared the three stanzas of "The Bugle Song" to

be worth more than Smith's whole volume; 62 and in a rare

review of the revised Princess, Graham's Magazine pro-

nounced the song "perhaps as remarkable a creation of

imagination born in melody, as can be found in Tennyson's

works." 63

With the success of these lyrics from The Princess, Amer-

ican composers and music publishers began to see similar

possibilities in Tennyson's earlier poems. "Airy, Fairy

Lilian," "Break, Break, Break," "It Is the Miller's Daugh-

ter," "Flow Down, Cold Rivulet," and others were soon

set to music. "Break, Break, Break" seems to have been espe-

cially popular. Though not attracting particular notice

from reviewers of the 1842 Poems, its popularity gained

steadily. Longfellow recorded in 1851 his pleasure in re-

citing it aloud while seated alone on the rocks of the Massa-

chusetts coast, 64 and' Henry Timrod in 1857 paid homage


to it in one of the closest of imitations, "Hark to the Shout-

ing Wind." 65 Several early musical settings for it were pub-

lished in America.

Many years were yet to come before Tennyson's songs

could rival those of Tom Moore and Felicia Hemans in

American popularity, but with "The May Queen" and the

songs of The Princess as extremely successful beginnings,

and with the addition of such favorites as "Ring Out, Wild

Bells," "Come into the Garden, Maud," and the songs of

the Idylls of the King, Tennyson was destined to reach the

first rank of popularity by the eighteen-sixties.

Chapter IV



coming upon the statement that in the year 1850 occurred

three of the greatest events in his life: the publication of

In Memoriam, his marriage, and his appointment as Poet

Laureate. From a literary standpoint, the most significant

of these was the appearance of In Memoriam. It was largely

responsible for his receiving the Laureateship, and the pub-

lisher's advance payment for In Memoriam made his mar-

riage possible. One American, fascinated by the romantic

story of Tennyson's long engagement to Emily Sellwood,

associated his marriage even more closely with the poem.

Twenty years earlier, wrote Thomas Wentworth Higgin-

son, Tennyson had won Miss Sellwood's heart, "but not

her head or conscience, for she was very strait in her the-

ology and he very lax in comparison." Years had passed,

and she still answered "No," but "then came 'In Memo-

riam' with its inspiration and its faith, and in one week

after its appearance there arrived a letter from the lady,

avowing her conscience set at rest at last by that wonder-

ful book, and hinting that all barriers were now thrown

down!" 1

News of Tennyson's plans for In Memoriam had reached

America as early as 1845. O n J une 3 °f tnat y ear > J onn

Forster wrote to Longfellow that Tennyson was thinking

"of publishing a set of poems on the death of a friend (Hal-

lam the historian's son)." The poems were to be "a kind of


Inferno and Paradise." Most of the poems, said Forster, had

been written for some years; they would make a volume and

would be worthy of Tennyson's genius. 2

In Memoriam was published in London in early June,

1 850/ and shortly thereafter preparations were under way

for an American edition. James T. Fields wrote Evert A.

Duyckinck from Boston on June 19, "We have announced

In Memoriam here and will thank you to insert the accom-

panying advertisement." 4 Ticknor, Reed, and Fields's large

advertisement of In Memoriam appeared in Duyckinck's

Literary World on June 29, and, nearly a month later, the

Boston Daily Evening Transcript for July 27 announced

the new poem as published "today."

Both in London and in Boston, In Memoriam was issued

anonymously. The title-page gave only the title of the poem,

the name of the publisher, and the place and date of publi-

cation, and the obverse page bore only the brief inscription,


A. H. H.


The Literary World on June 22 spoke of the "flutter" which

had been occasioned in England by the "enigmatic an-

nouncement" of In Memoriam. But the enigma was short-

lived. Even the Literary World's early note named Tenny-

son as the author and Arthur Henry Hallam as the subject.

All of Ticknor's advertisements named the author, and few,

if any, American reviewers failed to review the poem as

Tennyson's. Only rarely did reviewers express any uncer-

tainty as to the authorship or even refer to the fact that

Tennyson's name did not appear on the title page. By now

Tennyson's name had come to have a strong commercial

value, and it is natural that the publishers should have seen

to it that the public should know that In Memoriam was



From the publisher's point of view, the American edition

of In Memoriam was undoubtedly a success. At least two

separate impressions were made in 1850, 5 and others were

issued, still apparently from the original plates, every year

through 1856. There is no indication, however, that the

early sales were sensational, as were those of The Princess.

No known review referred to a rapid sale of In Memoriam,

and although information concerning early issues of the

two poems is scant, there is reason to believe that the Amer-

ican sales of The Princess, at least for the first year, exceeded

those of In Memoriam. During the period till 1856, there

were more issues of In Memoriam as a separate poem, but

it was, apparently, not until 1856 that In Memoriam was

included in an American edition of Poems; whereas, The

Princess was included immediately.

A comparison which can be made with more definite-

ness is that between the sales of the American edition of In

Memoriam and those of the English edition. There is every

reason to believe that the sales in England, where Edward

Moxon was having difficulty supplying the demand, far ex-

ceeded those in America. 6 Now for the first time the demand

for a new Tennyson work in Great Britain completely out-

distanced that in America.

As had been the case with Ticknor's former editions, the

reviewers highly praised the printing and general appear-

ance of his edition of In Memoriam. The book was slightly

larger than the first English edition, and the two varied

slightly in pagination. As Ticknor, Reed, and Fields ad-

vertised it, their edition of In Memoriam was uniform with

that of The Princess.


The American public began to hear of In Memoriam sev-

eral weeks before the appearance of Ticknor's first edition.


From scraps of information it had gathered from British

newspapers, the Literary World tried to describe the poem

as early as June 22: " 'In Memoriam' " was "understood to

consist of sonnets or elegies." Soon afterward numerous

American magazines and newspapers began to print ex-

cerpts from the poem, 7 and eclectic magazines reprinted

the early reviews from the British weekly periodicals. On

July 8 the New York International Weekly Miscellany

printed a laudatory review of In Memoriam from the Lon-

don Spectator, not before, however, notifying its readers in

a prefatory paragraph that it did not concur in the high

praise. 8 The Boston Daily Evening Transcript informed its

readers that the British journals were placing the new poem

"side by side with the inspirations of Dante, Petrarch, and

Shakespeare." 9 And on July 13 the Literary World pub-

lished a lengthy review of its own.

In announcing the publication of Ticknor's edition on

July 27, the Boston Daily Evening Transcript doubted not

that with In Memoriam Tennyson's fame would be "in-

creased, even among his admirers, who, to judge from the

sale of his famous works, must form a very large audience

in America." It was, however, at the hands of Tennyson's

American admirers that In Memoriam received some of its

harshest criticism. The old Tennysonians were divided.

Bayard Taylor called it "The first poem which this genera-

tion has yet produced." Soon after reading it, he wrote "it

has become so vital a part of my nature that if I live at all

it will live with me." 10 Charles Sumner, "charmed, touched,

and exalted" by In Memoriam, felt that he had "read very

few poems in any language with equal delight." X1 But Low-

ell did not care for it, 12 and Emerson considered it the poor-

est of Tennyson's works:

Tennyson's In Memoriam is the commonplaces of condolence

among good Unitarians in the first week of mourning. The con-

summate skill of the versification is the sole merit. The book has


the advantage that was Dr. [William Ellery] Channing's for-

tune, that all the merit was appreciable. He is never a moment

too high for his audience. But to demonstrate this mediocrity

I was forced to quote those moral sentences which make the

fame of true bards . . . and then to ask, Now show me one

such line in this book of Tennyson. 13

Americans generally received In Memoriam less favor-

ably than they had any other of Tennyson's works. Con-

trary to Emerson's feeling, many thought that its meaning

was obscure. In his lectures, Henry Reed warned that only

repeated reading and constant study could reveal the "wis-

dom and the beauty of the work." 14 S. S. Cutting's Chris-

tian Review attributed the extreme obscurity of the verses

to their "studied brevity and the partial suppression of the

emotion." 15 Another periodical considered In Memoriam

badly in need of a preface and notes. 16 And the Southern

Literary Messenger, whose reviewer, probably John Esten

Cooke, praised In Memoriam highly, regretted that much

of its effect was lost because of obscurity:

The great mass of men will never infuse their minds, so to speak,

into the mould of the poet's own, and search out the hidden

treasures which lie perdus, like gems in a great opera ... a

little care might have worked a great improvement in the In

Memoriam. 17

Another objection that ran through most of American

criticism was that the verses were monotonous. With mo-

notony as its theme, Brownson's Quarterly Review gave In

Memoriam one of the harshest reviews that it received any-

where. The reviewer confessed that he had read only far

enough to discover that "harmonious verse and a little

namby-pamby sentiment" formed the poem's only merit:

We broke down before reading twenty pages of the volume be-

fore us. It is doubtless all our own fault, and owing to our in-

ability to detect or appreciate true poetic gems. In brief words,

Tennyson is not a poet to our taste. That he has a poetic tern-


perament, we can believe; that he scatters here and there a real

poetic gem in his works, we are not disposed to deny; but to

us he is feeble, diffuse, and tiresome. He strikes us as a man of

feeble intellect, as wanting altogether in the depth and force of

thought indispensable, not to the poetic temperament, but to

the genuine poet. He seems to us a poet for puny transcenden-

talists, beardless boys, and miss in her teens. 18

Doubtless by the editor, Orestes A. Brownson, 19 this review

is a rare and interesting proof that as late as 1850 attacks

were still being leveled at Tennyson's admirers, that "pe-

culiar class" now grown to thousands.

Peterson's Magazine of New York, which had been one

of Tennyson's earliest and most vigorous sponsors, received

In Memoriam coolly: "The poems exhibit the characteristic

melody, sweetness, and lofty idealism of the author; but

have something of monotony, in consequence of being all

upon one theme." 20 The Albion warned its readers against

trying to read the volume at one sitting: the "very subject"

was "unavoidably monotonous." 21 Also, the Southern

Quarterly Review, which did not like In Memoriam at all,

objected to the monotony of the work:

For the volume before us a few words will suffice. It contains

undoubtedly a considerable proportion of excellent verse; sweet

fancies and subdued thoughts, in a mournful strain, such as the

title might lead us to expect. But the plan of the volume is

monotonous, — more than two hundred pages, in verse, upon a

single general topic, however diversified by varieties of rhythm,

and broken into small pieces, each addressed to some one of

the phases of the theme, could scarcely be otherwise. But Mr.

Tennyson has not employed a varying rhythm. His verse is not

only uniform in measure and structure, but it is one which does

not readily commend itself to the ear. Though marked with

frequent rests and pauses, the only change which it shows, is

in the transition from one sentiment of the same subject to

another. 22

The American Whig Review devised a curative formula:

"The monotony which superficially meets the reader van-


ishes as he gets into the wailing mood." As the reader

opened the book, he should think of a lost friend — or if

among "ye loving and losing," he might think of a cruel

sweetheart — who had left him "friendless, lonely, childless,

parentless, brotherless, or loveless"; then if in that mood he

would read calmly and quietly, he would be comforted, and

the monotony would disappear. 23

American periodicals warmly debated the question

whether or not Tennyson's grief in In Memoriam was sin-

cere. Could such poignancy of grief last so long a time, they

asked; and was not such a feeling between two grown men

unmanly and weakly sentimental? Could it be natural and

unaffected? One reviewer confessed to a "great doubt of

the sincerity of these lachrymal verses"; 24 another thought

the grief greatly exaggerated; 25 and the Democratic Review

in its severe handling of In Memoriam dealt Tennyson the

hardest blow on this score:

These poems are, in a word, capricious and fanciful. They do

not spring from, nor appeal to, what is deepest and most uni-

versal in human nature. The very occasion and circumstances

of the volume do not seem to be altogether rational or natural.

To lament the departed is a sacred duty, as well as sweet relief.

But where no ties of blood have been severed, and the relation

is entirely one of sympathy and sentiment, to extend one's grief

over a period of from ten to twenty years, and its record over

more than two hundred pages, indicates a state of mind with

which not the many, but only those of similar idiosyncrasies,

will fully sympathize.


Chief among the periodicals which came to Tennyson's

defense was the New Englander. As it had done for both

the Poems of 1842 and The Princess, it devoted a long and

analytical review to In Memoriam. One by one it listed the

faults that had been found with the poem and then de-

fended Tennyson at every point. The reviewer found In

Memoriam "a true story of real suffering." Those who


thought Tennyson "extravagant" or "hypocritical" did not

understand the poem. 27 Graham's Magazine was another

that had no sympathy with those who called In Memoriam

"unnatural and unmanly." With most mourners such grief

would be unnatural, but with Tennyson it was the natural

feeling of a mind and heart in which emotion was always

"indissolubly blended with thought." The "great peculiar-

ity" of Tennyson's genius was "intellectual intensity." 28

The New York Daily Tribune (August 21, 1850) offered

the same argument:

. . . [The verses of In Memoriam] emanate from the sincerest

depths of feeling and are embodied in language of thoughtful

vigor, sometimes nearly approaching austerity. They are the

true utterance of the heart fortified by the severest exercise of

the intellect. They breathe the soul of passion, but are clothed

in a body so strong and often so rugged, as not to be torn by

any storm of emotion. Hence their pervading character is a

calmness which impresses you like the imposing grandeur of


Harper's Magazine considered Tennyson's "serene tran-

quility" the best proof of his "sad sincerity." In In Memo-

riam there was "no indulgence in weak and morbid senti-

ment"; it was free from the "preternatural gloom" which

so often made elegiac poetry "an abomination to every

healthy intellect." The "tearful bard" was to be praised for

not allowing himself to be drowned in his sorrow. 29

An interesting bit of criticism concerning Tennyson's

sincerity was written in a letter from C. C. Felton to Long-

fellow in 1853. 30 Though never published, it is significant

as an instance of one of Tennyson's old adversaries still

holding his ground. Felton wrote from Scotland that on a

voyage to Glasgow he had chatted with a beautiful Scotch

lass. Their conversation turned upon In Memoriam, and

Felton said, "Parts of it are very sweet: but it is too long

drawn: too effeminate, mushy and womanish for a manly


friendship." The young lady agreed, and Felton continued

with a discourse which, whether serious or not, is amusing:

I do not believe he wrote it from the heart: it was partly from

mere fancy, and partly from imitation. I think he must have

been fresh from the study of Petrarch's interminable series of

Sonnets to Laura, and wishing to do something of the same sort

and not having a Laura to bewail — Since Mrs. Tennyson was

by his side — happened to remember a young friend and so

transferred to his memory, the echo of Petrarch's hopeless pas-

sion for Laura.

The similarity between this and Felton's review of the

Poems of 1842 is striking. There, too, Felton tried to be

jocose at Tennyson's expense.

In Memoriam was spared much criticism by virtue of

its subject. A mourning for the dead was to be reverenced.

The sacred and intensely personal quality of the work raised

it above "the region of ordinary criticism." 31 Pointing out

faults in the verses was like pointing to the wreath on a

dead man's brow and saying "that flower is out of place." 32

Some critics wondered how Tennyson could send such a

personal and intimate revelation out into the world: his

reluctance was shown by his sending it forth without his

name. 33 The Christian Examiner worshiped the poem in

subdued tones:

It is a book to be read in entire sympathy with its author, and

not a volume to be subjected to the stern judgment of those

who practise the "ungenial craft." The hard, cold world has

nothing to do with such sacred outpourings of sorrow as we here

find. They belong to the inner experience of the mourner, — an

experience almost too holy for any but one's bosom friends to

witness. 34

As might be expected, the religious periodicals gave In

Memoriam its highest praise. Congregationalist but more

liberal and literary than most of them, the New Englander

in its long review commended the "moral purity" of the


poem. No one could read In Memoriam without feeling

that he had been "in converse with a mind to which pure

and elevated thoughts are natural and habitual." Tennyson

was leading the way toward a more Christian English po-


There is not a sentence in his writings, which contains an in-

delicate or ungodly allusion. The change which has come over

the poetry of England, in this respect, within the present cen-

tury, is one of the harbingers of a better day.'


Calling In Memoriam "the best [book] of its kind which

has ever appeared," the Boston Monthly Religious Maga-

zine recommended it to all who "cherish the religious senti-

ment" or long for "that faith in God without which we are

as ships without an anchor." 36 Likewise, the Christian Re-

view praised Tennyson's reverence for "truth and God"

and his revelation in In Memoriam that his "strong pillar

of consolation" was "the fact of Immortality." 37 Such peri-

odicals found many parallels between In Memoriam and

the Bible; they liked to compare Tennyson and Hallam's

friendship to that of David and Jonathan. 38

Some of the religious periodicals, however, "born to con-

troversy as surely as man is born to trouble," 39 were not so

certain of Tennyson's orthodoxy. The Christian Register

of Boston was "obliged to pass over" some of the less Chris-

tian passages which, it said, "are nothing to us"; 40 and the

New York Recorder, Baptist weekly, thought that In Me-

moriam placed Tennyson definitely on the side of the ag-

nostics. Tennyson doubted immortality, for he thought

that his deceased friend might

Be blown about the desert dust,

Or seal'd within the iron hills.

Tennyson knew not; his faith knew not; and he shrieked

in his agony:


. . . what am I,

An infant crying in the night;

An infant crying for the light,

And with no language but a cry.

And in justification of his doubts, he said,

There is more faith in honest doubt,

Believe me, than in half the creeds.

The Recorder had had its suspicions upon reading "The

Two Voices," but now it was certain. Although "his father

was a respected clergyman" and although "he was himself

educated under Dr. [William] Whewell at Cambridge,"

Tennyson had become an unbeliever. 41

Americans found in In Memoriam less of the lilting mu-

sic and airy delicacy which they had praised in Tennyson's

former works. The New York Daily Tribune (August 21,

1850) missed the "ethereal grace, the sparkling profusion

of imagery or the playful dalliance of sentiment which

usually gives such charm to the lifesome productions of

Tennyson." But Tennyson's followers still found much to

admire in the poetry of In Memoriam. Oliver Wendell

Holmes liked the rime scheme abba. Soon after reading In

Memoriam, he wrote of it to George Ticknor, "It is truly

extraordinary what freshness is given to a most common-

place rhythm by a return of that exceptional arrangement

of the rhymes occasionally employed by earlier writers." 42

Both R. H. Stoddard and George Henry Boker liked the

refined and varied rhythm of In Memoriam. Boker wrote

to Stoddard in 1850 concerning one whom he called Stod-

dard's "own dear idol":

Speaking of Tennyson, is there not a world of beauty in "In

Memoriam"? what refinement and exactness of expression! what

melody in single lines! what general harmony! what scope and

richness! what grand, what tender, what majestic, what child-

like varieties in versification! As I live, no man has ever rung

such changes on our noble English. . . . Certainly, in all that


pertains to the ART of poetry Tennyson is the first of English

poets; but others, Shakespeare, Milton, etc., far excel him in

genius. But Tennyson is not dead: what may we not see anon? 43

The passage of In Memoriam most frequently praised for

its lyrical beauty was Section CVI beginning "Ring out,

wild bells, to the wild sky." Most reviews quoted the pas-

sage. Several called it a sequel to "The Death of the Old

Year." One magazine printed the two side by side and added

illustrations and laudatory comment to form an article en-

titled "Winter and the New Year." 44 Graham's Magazine

wrote of "Ring Out, Wild Bells":

The ringing of the Christmas bells prompts a grand poem,

in which the poet rises out of his dirges into a rapturous proph-

ecy of the "good time coming." It is altogether the best of many

good lyrics on the same general theme. 45

Scores of newspapers and magazines printed the passage as

an individual poem, many not knowing that it was a part

of In Memoriam. , 46 In 1857 Oliver Ditson of Boston pub-

lished a musical setting for it entitled "New Year's Bells."

Although a majority of the American reviews of In Me-

moriam mixed unfavorable comment liberally with the

favorable, the poem was received in some quarters with

superlative praise. When a rare British censure of In Me-

moriam 47 was widely reprinted in America, it provoked

more disapproval than approbation. The Home Journal

termed it an "admirable critical analysis of Tennyson," 48

but the Albion thought it "perhaps rather unfair and preju-

diced," 49 and a contributor wrote for the Home Journal

a lengthy reply to the British article. Writing his reply in

the form of a letter to the editors of the Home Journal, he

denounced them for their approval of an attack upon "an

almost sacred poem." 50

One of the most laudatory of American reviews of In

Memoriam was that in Sartain's Union Magazine. In his


brief but thoughtful review, the editor, John S. Hart, found

not a single fault in the poem:

Here is a small volume which may be read in an hour, and yet

one might fill a magazine with observations upon its beauties

without exhausting the subject. The world is made richer by

such a contribution to its sources of enjoyment. We have felt,

in reading, a constant sense of gratitude to the author, increas-

ing at every succeeding page, for having opened to us in this

poem such a fresh fountain of delight. The tone of the work is

powerful, and yet it is a sorrow so subdued, so chastened, the

heart is at once purified and filled with a pervading sense of

beauty while listening to the mourner. 51

Several years after the appearance of In Memoriam, criti-

cisms of it became much more favorable than they had been.

Definite disapproval became almost taboo, and the highest

of praise was soon in order. This change was due not so

much to an actual reconsideration of the poem as to the rise

of Tennyson and to the superlative praise by the British.

As Tennyson neared his height, doubtless there was much

more praising of In Memoriam than reading of it. Probably

many who gave it highest praise had never read it at all.

Such descriptions of it as ''the greatest elegy ever penned,"

"the greatest English poem since Paradise Lost,'' or "the

one great poem of the age" became commonplaces of criti-

cism. W. R. Alger's review in 1856 is a good example:

But the costliest offering of words ever laid at this shrine

[friendship] is that placed by Alfred Tennyson on the new-made

grave of Arthur Hallam. The "In Memoriam" reads, and will a

thousand years hence, as though it were "written in star-fire

and immortal tears." Victoria's Laureate has herein done for

friendship more than Rienzi's did for love, and he shall be

crowned for ever with greener bays. . . . The philosophic poet

of our own day has built his living lines of reflection and love

into a matchless temple of grief, in whose chancel lies the em-

balmed form of Arthur, the flower of men, lighted by tapers

of veneration, bemoaned by voices of wisest thought and sweet-

est sorrow, to be a shrine for the pilgrims of the heart as long


as a single feature remains in the -mighty landscape of English

literature. 52


Next to America's high praise of the pre-1842 poems,

the marked shift in the relationship between British and

American criticism of Tennyson upon the appearance of

In Memoriam is the most significant fact in the history of

American Tennyson criticism. Whereas, American critics

had excelled the British in praising all of Tennyson's for-

mer works, with In Memoriam the situation was reversed.

Americans liked both the Poems of 1842 and The Princess

better than they did In Memoriam. One reviewer of In

Memoriam devoted much of his time to proving that it

was inferior to The Princess/ 3 and another closed one of

the most favorable reviews that In Memoriam received in

America with a laudatory quotation from an English maga-

zine and the admission that he could not go that far. 54 With

In Memoriam British critics for the first time greeted a new

poem. of Tennyson's with immediate and enthusiastic ap-

plause. 55 As in America, there was talk of obscurity and mo-

notony, but with a single exception all known reviews in

leading British periodicals were favorable. 56 When the Lon-

don Times published its unique unfavorable review, 57 it

drew upon itself a concentrated fire of disapproval from

the British press. 58

It is not difficult to understand why the British liked In

Memoriam best of Tennyson's works. It showed Tennyson

in effect following their instructions. 59 They had told him

to write upon a great and universal theme — a subject

worthy of his powers. They had told him not to waste his

genius upon frivolous lyrics, but to make the music sub-

servient to a great purpose. They had said that mere music

was not enough, and that they saw in Tennyson the ability

to create a poem of epic proportions, a grand expression of


his age, if he would only make the attempt. In Memoriam

conformed to these principles. It had depth, and its theme

was universal and sublime.

Americans had given Tennyson no such instructions.

They liked his lyric quality and considered it sufficient

unto itself. Therefore they had praised his light and airy

lyrics. They had not counseled him to write an epic. Some

of Tennyson's American admirers liked his poems of 1842

and before better than anything that Tennyson ever wrote

afterwards. 60 Then, he was more spontaneous and less con-

strained by the feeling that he had to have a message for

his age. Charles Sumner wrote to Richard Monckton Milnes

soon after the 1842 Poems:

I understand that Emerson is afraid that Tennyson, since he

published his first volume, has become a "fine gentleman," by

which I suppose he means that his free thought and voluntary

numbers will be constrained by the conventions of the world. 61

In Memoriam clearly exemplified the trend away from

what Americans had so highly praised. Through 1848

Lowell ranked Tennyson among the greatest of poets; there-

after he liked "Maud," but by the eighteen-sixties he even

expressed an aversion for Tennyson. 62 Concerning Poe's

high praise of Tennyson one usually mentions as a remark-

able circumstance the fact that Poe died before the appear-

ance of In Memoriam, but it is entirely possible, and even

probable, that Poe, if he had lived, would have liked noth-

ing of Tennyson's as well as he had the Poems of 1842 and

The Princess. Those Americans who had given Tennyson

some of his earliest praise, in general, deplored the change

which In Memoriam evidenced.

Neither what Lowell or Emerson might say nor even the

generally slow acceptance of In Memoriam in America,

however, had much effect upon Tennyson's advancing fame.

The year 1850 found a growing popular clamor both in


England and in America for anything that was Tennyson's,

and both In Memoriam and the Laureateship lent impetus

to the advance. As one American periodical in 1850 63 closed

its disapproval of Tennyson, "We think Bryant is a greater

poet, and we might refer to others at home and abroad,

whom it delights us more to read. But it is unquestionable

that Tennyson is the favorite of the hour."

Chapter V



tion arose as to who should be the next Poet Laureate.

Samuel Rogers refused the honor, numbers of others were

considered, and it was given to Tennyson on November 19.

Little noise of the commotion reached across the Atlantic.

One magazine objected to the consideration of Leigh

Hunt. 1 Several were interested in the rumor that as a grace-

ful compliment to the Queen the Laureateship would be

bestowed upon a woman. 2 But the matter received little

attention. One reviewer of In Memoriam did not even know

that Wordsworth had been the Laureate. Tennyson, said

the reviewer, was about to be offered the Laureateship

which had been "unborne since Southey's death." 3

If the discussion had aroused interest, there can be little

doubt as to what its trend would have been. No one was

spoken of as the chief of living English poets as often as was

Tennyson. When, several months before the appointment,

Thomas Holley Olivers wrote for the Macon Georgia

Citizen that he would "rejoice to see" Tennyson made the

next Laureate, he expressed what might safely be called the

general American sentiment. Tennyson, Chivers continued,

would "dignify the office better than any man that has ever

been a Laureate." 4 After the appointment was made,

Bayard Taylor, most consistently ardent of Tennysonians,

exulted that the title would lose "none of the glory it took

from Wordsworth," and literary periodicals spoke of the


appointment as being in conformity with their wishes and

expectations. 5

References to Tennyson as the grand representative of his

time began much earlier in England than in America. The

idea dated back as far as Arthur Hallam's review of Poems,

Chiefly Lyrical in 1831. 6 Americans never were much con-

cerned over whether Tennyson was or was not the spokes-

man of his age. Even in the eighteen-forties when Tennyson

was in fact more the great leader of living poets to Ameri-

cans than he was to his own countrymen, American review-

ers spoke less of him as a standard bearer than did the

British. But a New York reviewer used the idea as a theme

for his review of the 1842 Poems. 1 Charles A. Bristed in

1845 continued the idea, regretting that contemporary poets

were not better so that Tennyson could be leader of a great

age and not a mediocre one, 8 and a year later a less known

critic declared Almighty God the greatest poet that ever

lived, with Milton a close second, and Alfred Tennyson,

whose name was soon to be "aromatic in the mouths of

men," not far behind. 9 By 1850, whether they called Tenny-

son the poet of the age in so many words or not, few dis-

cussions of contemporary poetry failed to begin by char-

acterizing his work.

This prominence did not mean at all that Tennyson was

praised by all of the critics. On the contrary, he sometimes

received the blame for all that they did not like in modern

poetry. Although their number was decreasing, many critics

still harked back to the ages of Byron and Scott or Pope and

Dryden, and found nothing in the modern age to praise.

Nowhere was this attitude more strongly entrenched than

in the South. In Charleston, South Carolina, Dryden and

Pope were the poetic models, and of later poets only Byron

received much praise. 10 William J. Grayson represented the

strongest of the conservatives: "My select friends [among

poets]," he wrote in 1862, "are not of the new schools. I


adhere to the old masters and their followers. I believe in

Dryden and Pope. . . ." The "sin of modern poetry," Gray-

son thought, was "exaggeration of sentiment, of passion, of

description, of everything." It wanted simplicity and truth.

It strove to be deep but ended in obscurity. 11 Though not so

conservative, William Gilmore Simms had much the same

attitude toward contemporary poets. His Magnolia, South-

ern and Western Magazine, and Southern Quarterly Re-

view rarely mentioned Tennyson's poetry and then only to

condemn. 12 Henry Timrod, a champion of the new order,

wrote of the gentlemen about him "who know Pope and

Horace by heart, but who have never read a word of Words-

worth or Tennyson, or who have read them with suspicion,

and rejected them with superciliousness." 13

Charleston was not the only place where such an attitude

existed. A few months before his death, Washington Irving

confessed that he had never read Tennyson. "A man at my

time of life," he said, "makes few new acquaintances with

the poets. I read but little of them; and that among the

friends of my youth." 14 William Cullen Bryant, of the same

generation, had read Tennyson, liked several individual

passages, 15 but deplored his and Keats's influence on modern

poetry. Contemporary poets showed a dangerous liking for

striking novelties, obscure allusions, and "a repulsively

abstruse affectation of meaning when there was no mean-

ing." 16 Fitz-Greene Halleck felt the same aversion to the

younger poets and attributed their faults to their "ill-luck

of having taken Tennyson and Mrs. Browning as models in

place of Spenser and Milton." 17 Halleck referred to Tenny-

son as "facetious" and "too feminine." 18 In his reminis-

cences of Halleck, Joel Benton wrote that "the era of poetry

which began with Tennyson never won his [Halleck's]

admiration. He was very tenacious in his dislike of the Eng-

lish Laureate, and thought that he had for thirty years had

a most disastrous effect upon English poetry."



Though never as strong as Halleck's, such sentiments

were thinly scattered through American magazines and

newspapers of the eighteen-fifties. As the watchword of the

earlier foes of the Tennysonian school had been "affecta-

tion," it had now become "obscurity." An article, "Ancient

and Modern Poetry," in the Home Journal for March 15,

1856, expressed admiration for the "clear sense and easy

flow of Pope" but complained concerning "the poets of

the present age — Tennyson, Browning, and others" that

"the difficulty of understanding their meaning" destroyed

the pleasure which might otherwise be derived from their


Likewise, in far away California an interesting article

entitled "The Age of Modern Poetry" expressed much the

same sentiment. That Tennyson's poems were reaching

California in the eighteen-fifties is shown by advertisements

of Ticknor's editions in California newspapers, 20 but liter-

ary criticism in the far West was too much in its infancy

then to offer evidence sufficient to indicate a trend for or

against. Tennyson. This article, however, exemplifies re-

markably the yearning for the literary greatness of the past

and the dejection over the mediocrity of the present:

The greatest age of modern poetry, after that of Shakespeare,

is to be found in that generation which has just passed away,

the sound of the footsteps of whose men yet lingers in our ears.

That age saw Byron, Scott, Moore, Wordsworth, Coleridge,

Southey, Keats, Shelley, and a score of others, whose works be-

long to the literature of England alone. To them have suc-

ceeded no men who can be considered worthy to tread in their

footsteps, or to wear their laurels. The sun of poetry has gone

down, and we have but moonlight at the best in its place, with

starlight to help us, occasionally. . . . Our age . . . produces

no poetry to speak of. The pinch-beck ware of Tennyson hardly

makes good the absence of the gold of Byron. 21

Voiced largely by the older generation, these low esti-

mates of Tennyson and contemporary poetry represented a


small minority. Rising to meet their challenge were dozens

of younger poets, such as Bayard Taylor, Edmund Clarence

Stedman, R. H. Stoddard, Thomas Buchanan Read, George

Henry Boker, Henry Timrod, and Paul Hamilton Hayne,

who paid homage to Tennyson both in verbal praise and in

imitation of his style. Hayne's Russell's Magazine (1857-

60) championed the cause of Tennyson and the new poetry

in Charleston, 22 and Stedman openly acknowledged Tenny-

son as his master. Through all of Tennyson's poetry, "there

runs," said Stedman, "the truest, noblest, broadest, philoso-

phy of the age. He has made me wiser and better." To

Stedman, Tennyson was a magnificent reformer of English

poetry. If the critics of the old school who, calling Tenny-

son "finical" and "puerile," ignored him, would read his

poems, they would find

A Poet, who dared, at a time when all English poets were run-

ning into the most extended and extenuated styles, to prove

by his works that the greatest Poet, other things being equal, is

the greatest Artist. Who condensed and finished everything he

wrote, without injuring it otherwise, and proved that the greater

the finish, the greater the poem, for true finish never reduces

the strength. . . . He is a Poet who has tried successfully, every

department of English verse, and is as great as the greatest in

all. 23

Evidence that Tennyson was becoming more and more

widely considered the greatest living poet is to be found on

all sides. Read called Tennyson's poems "divine." 24 Stod-

dard called him the "sweetest and purest" poet in the Eng-

lish language: Tennyson compressed "more poetry in one

line than Pope in five." 25 Tennyson was becoming a stand-

ard by which to measure poetic excellence. When wishing

to give a poem the highest commendation, reviewers called

it worthy "even of Tennyson." 26 In placing him at the

head of modern poets, the Southern Literary Messenger in

November, 1853, praised "the singular congeniality of


Tennyson's poetry with the rising spirit of the time, its

harmony with what is apparently to be the tone of senti-

ment in the coming generation"; and the encomium of an-

other periodical was not extraordinary: "We regard him

[Tennyson] as the worthy successor to Coleridge and Words-

worth. . . . We regard him as the fit exponent of the

highest civilization of the world. . . . We regard him, in a

single word, as pre-eminently the poet of our age." 27

The chief foundation for this exalted position accorded

Tennyson was America's love of the early poems. Almost

invariably, general reviews of Tennyson's poems in the

eighteen-fifties gave much more space to the poems of 1842

than to The Princess and In Memoriam combined, and al-

though little was known of the discarded pre- 1842 poems,

some efforts were made to resurrect them. 28 One reviewer

in 1855 spoke of "Break, Break, Break," "The Lotos-

Eaters," and other early poems as constituting "the greatest

epoch of his [Tennyson's] experience"; another, in 1858,

declared that the early poems exhibited better than any

others the majestic force of Tennyson's genius; and still

another felt that although Tennyson had written The

Princess, In Memoriam, and "Maud," it was by his early

short poems that he had "awakened deep echoes in the

hearts of the people" and by which he was "best under-

stood." 29

If newspaper reporters can be trusted, Oliver Wendell

Holmes's lecture on Tennyson, in his well known series of

lectures on the English poets delivered several times in

1853, mentioned The Princess and In Memoriam hardly at

all. 30 Brief mentions of In Memoriam were laudatory, but

Holmes saved his time for "Locksley Hall," "Claribel,"

"Mariana," "The Lady of Shalott," and "The May Queen."

Holmes's favorite was "The Lady of Shalott." He thought

it fascinating, picturesque, dreamy — all qualities which he

found also in other poems of 1842.


Throughout this high American praise of the poems of

1842, one notes the conspicuous absence of several now

considered the best of the group. "Morte d' Arthur," for

instance, was almost never singled out for comment, and

"Ulysses" was rarely praised superlatively. In their stead

scores of little poems, oft-quoted and much enjoyed but

now barely remembered, ran their course through Ameri-

can newspapers and magazines of the eighteen-fifties.

Ignoring the distinctly English qualities of Tennyson,

many American critics labored strenuously to find Ameri-

can traits in his poems. Calling him "the darling of the

white-gloved and diamond-ringed society," Holmes felt that

Tennyson's great and increasing popularity in America

showed that in America the "upper layer of society" was

growing; 31 but Holmes's was not the general attitude.

"Though he is the poet laureate of England," wrote one

reviewer, "Tennyson is by no means the poet of royalty." 32

His poetry's "peculiar applicability to a democratic age"

gave it a clear "title to public favor in America." Magazine

writers delighted in uncovering passages to prove Tenny-

son's belief in democracy: "Lady Clara Vere de Vere"

showed an "American contempt" for social position; 33

"The Goose" was a plea for the laboring classes; 34 and

"The Brook" was proof enough that Tennyson understood

"common life" better than "any other famous English

poet." 35 A Yale student thought that in its democracy and

optimism, Tennyson's poetry was "peculiarly adapted . . .

to the American youth of this age," 36 and a particularly

imaginative writer was able to see in "Locksley Hall" the

"dream of a universal American Empire, gradually absorb-

ing and annexing all the kingdoms of the earth." This

empire, said the American, was "vaguely anticipated by

Tennyson, and summed up in the striking expression of

'the federation of the world.' " 37

Americans felt that they had appreciated Tennyson more


readily than had his own countrymen and were proud of the

fact. "Tennyson in the old world is beyond his age," wrote

one reviewer, "but here, where there is greater freedom of

thought, and less allegiance to the blinding influences of

sense, it is otherwise." By sense, explained the reviewer, he

meant the "cold, didactic formulas" of the old school of

poets. In America an original poet did not have to wait "per-

haps a quarter of century" for recognition just because of

his "departure from the schools." 38 "The truth is," wrote

another reviewer, "that the American Mind is more delicate

and sensitive than the English." In support of his statement

he declared that the best English poets were "infinitely more

extensively read and appreciated in this country than in

the land of their birth. Ticknor and Co. sold edition after

edition of the poems of Tennyson, while the English edi-

tion was a 'drug' in the market." 39

Such statements are to be found elsewhere, 40 and that

Tennyson was selling rapidly cannot be doubted, but in a

comparison of sales in America with those in England, one

has to consider a factor other than the "American Mind."

There was no international copyright law. Ticknor and

Company never pirated Tennyson's books, but while

Tennyson was demanding the highest of prices from his

English publishers, Ticknor was paying much smaller

royalties and was selling the books throughout America at

less than half their sales prices in London. 41 A listing of the

original prices of the American and English first editions

will present the contrast graphically: 42

American English

Poems (1842) $1.50 12 shillings ($3.00)

The Princess $0.50 5 " ($1.25)

In Memoriam $0.75 6 " ($1.50)

Maud, and Other Poems $0.50 5 ($1.25)

Chambers's Edinburgh Journal printed in 1846 one of the

clearest, if exaggerated, early explanations of the situation.


English books in London, said the Journal, were available

only to the wealthy, while in America they were ''distrib-

uted throughout every village in the Union," even to "the

bar-room and the shanty of the 'far West.' " In consequence,

the British authors were better known in the United States

than in Great Britain, and more copies of their works were

"to be found in a single city there than in the whole country

where they were produced." 43

English authors keenly resented the pirating of their

books by American publishers, and that resentment was

doubtless an underlying cause of some of the ill-humored

English reviews of American works, and in turn, caused

some American detractions of the English Laureate in favor

of Longfellow and Poe. 44 Upon his several visits to England

in the eighteen-fifties, Thomas Buchanan Read noticed the

ill feeling in many quarters and once or twice reminded the

Englishmen "that several of their head men had made their

reputations first in America" and "that it was the echo of

their fame created in our country which at last called atten-

tion to them in their own." "This," Read said, "they cer-

tainly ignore, although it is undeniable both in regard to

Carlyle and Tennyson." 45

Especially in the case of Tennyson, the early American

appreciation cannot be ignored. Americans praised him

years before they had an edition of his poems. It is true,

nevertheless, that the easy availability of his books later and

the excellent work of Ticknor and Fields contributed

greatly to his American popularity.

Throughout the eighteen-forties and fifties, William D.

Ticknor and his associates were the sole authorized Ameri-

can publishers of Tennyson. On March 18, 1856, Tennyson

wrote to Ticknor and Fields, "As I have received from you

remuneration for my books, it is my wish that with you

alone the right of publishing them in America should lie," 46

and Tennyson's wish seems to have been adhered to for


several years thereafter. 47 The adherence, however, was no

doubt due more to the difficulty of competing with Ticknor

than to any consideration for Tennyson's wishes in the


It would be difficult for one to imagine any publisher's

receiving higher praise than that accorded Ticknor and

Fields. The Home Journal (October 7, 1854) entitled an

article "Ticknor, Reed and Fields," in praise of their edi-

tions of the poets. The Knickerbocker proposed a toast to

the company: "Success to the MOXONS and MURRAYS

of America!" 48 And the "Blue and Gold" pocket edition of

Tennyson was considered a sort of crowning achievement.

"Immortality in miniature was never more excellently

represented." 49 It was almost unbelievable that the com-

plete poems of "one of the truest poets that ever illustrated

our language" could now be had for "the price of the last

worthless novel." 50 "If," wrote the Home Journal, "books

had been manufactured in those days when Oberon and

Titania were mighty powers in the woodland, when every

asphodel and every king's-cup was the chateau of a fairy,"

those books would have been just such beautiful little

"claspable tomes" as "Ticknor's miniature Tennyson." 51

When Fields sent his friend, George S. Hillard, a copy,

Hillard wrote his verses, "On Receiving a Copy of Tenny-

son's Poems," which combine the highest praise of Tenny-

son with that of his American publishers:

When your new Tennyson I hold, dear friend,

Where blue and gold, like sky and sunbeam, blend, —

A fairy tome — of not too large a grasp

For Queen Titania's dainty hand to clasp, —

I feel fresh truth in the old saying wise,

That greatest worth in smallest parcel lies.

Thanks to the poet, who to dusty hearts

The balm and bloom of summer fields imparts;


Who gives the toil-worn mind a passage free

To the brown mountain and the sparkling sea;

Who lifts the thoughts from earth, and pours a ray

Of fairy land around life's common way.

And thanks to you, who put this precious wine,

Red from the poet's heart, in flask so fine,

The hand may clasp it, and the pocket hold; —

A casket small, but filled with perfect gold. £



By the early eighteen-fifties, most of the American an-

thologies of British poets were including poems of Tenny-

son. His poetry had appeared in an American anthology as

early as 1840, when Fitz-Greene Halleck's Selections from

the British Poets included "Mariana." A few years later

Griswold's The Poets and Poetry of England in the Nine-

teenth Century printed ten of Tennyson's poems along with

its already-mentioned depreciatory biographical account of

him and devoted more space to him than to Scott, Keats,

Coleridge, or Felicia Hemans. Longfellow included "Break,

Break, Break" in his group of neglected poems, The Estray,

in 1847, an d when anthologies began to gain in popularity

ten years later, all of the most publicized ones including

English poems contained specimens from Tennyson. When

Joseph William Jenks's The Rural Poetry of the English

Language left Tennyson out, one reviewer vigorously pro-

tested the omission. 53 Evert A. Duyckinck's edition of Will-

mott's The Poets of the Nineteenth Century contained

"The May Queen," "Morte d' Arthur," "Edward Gray,"

"The Goose," and "Break, Break, Break," 54 and of the

forty-three poets represented in Henry Coppee's expensive

and richly illustrated Gallery of Famous English and

American Poets, Tennyson ranked fourth in the amount

of space devoted to him. 55

So varied were the poems of Tennyson selected by the


anthologists that it is difficult to name the favorites. The

distribution ranged all the way from "Morte d' Arthur" to

"The Goose" and "O Darling Room." As might be ex-

pected, the shorter poems predominated. Many of the poems

now most common in anthologies were almost ignored.

"Morte d' Arthur," "Ulysses," and "The Lady of Shalott"

were rare. Surprisingly infrequent were the feminine por-

traits of the "Lilian" type, which Americans both enjoyed

and imitated. If one might hazard a naming of favorites,

they seem to have been "The May Queen," "Mariana,"

"Break, Break, Break," and the rimed songs from The


The most popular kind of anthologies in America from

1840 to i860 was the gift-books and literary annuals. Com-

posed largely of poetry and prose fiction, their material

came predominantly from American writers, but several

of the British poets were well represented. Felicia Hemans

was far and away the most popular, with Tom Moore,

Byron, Wordsworth, and Tennyson vying for the second

position. 56 The earliest known American annual to include

poems of Tennyson was Friendship's Offering for 1842,

published in late 1841, which contained "A Fragment" and

"No More." Since the annuals especially liked mournful

and lugubrious poetry, Tennyson's "Mariana" and verses

of its type were popular. One unusually doleful gift-book,

Memory and Hope for 1851, used In Memoriam as its motif:

it opened with nine stanzas closely imitating stanzas from

In Memoriam and closed with a selection from the poem. 57

Another, of a less mournful nature, The Irving Offering for

1852, proudly announcing its selections as worthy of the

strongest approval of Washington Irving, selected one poem

of Tennyson's: "O Darling Room"; and The Kossuth Offer-

ing and Family Souvenir for the same year, one of the rare

annuals to include literary essays, contained an unsigned

article, "Tennyson's Lockesley [sic] Hall."


Tennyson was represented in several anthologies which

gathered together poems on specific subjects. Selections

from In Memoriam appeared frequently in books of re-

ligious verse. Epes Sargent's The Testimony of The Poets

quoted a long passage from In Memoriam™ and Stephen G.

Bulfinch's The Harp and the Cross selected three passages,

entitling them ''Lazarus and Mary," "God Ruling in All,"

and "Hope, Doubt, and Trust." The Poetic Lacon (1847),

a book of aphorisms, contained quotations from Tennyson

equal in number to those from the established English poets.

Samuel Longfellow and Thomas Wentworth Higginson's

Thalatta: A Book for the Sea-Side, using as its preface two

passages from Tennyson concerning the sea, contained also

"Sweet and Low," "Break, Break, Break," and "Ask Me

No More"; and Thomas Bulfinch's Poetry of the Age of

Fable used seven excerpts from Tennyson's classical poems.

School texts containing the work of living authors were

not numerous during this period, and many which did

exist contained no Tennyson. Nevertheless, Tennyson's

poems got an early start in American texts. In 1842 Peren-

nial Flowers, a "collection of poetry appropriate for the use

of girls in schools" used "The Dying Swan," and in the same

year Anna C. Lowell's Poetry for Home and School printed

four of Tennyson's poems. 59 When Charles D. Cleveland's

English Literature of the Nineteenth Century, "designed

for colleges and advanced classes in schools," appeared in

1851, Tennyson did not appear among its seventy-eight

authors, but in its second edition (1853) Tennyson was

represented by a biographical account, four short poems,

and several passages from In Memoriam. Epes Sargent's

Selections in Poetry for Exercises at School and at Home

contained three of Tennyson's poems, and although Wil-

liam H. McGuffey's famous readers seem to have ignored

Tennyson till 1857, m tnat Y ear McGuffey's New High

School Reader printed parts of "The May Queen," all of


"Break, Break, Break," and a brief biographical account of

Tennyson which ranked him "among the first of modern

poets." 60

One of the most popular kinds of school texts in America

around 1850 was the book of recitations and exercises in

elocution, and Tennyson's poems were frequently used as

such exercises. A Young Ladies' Elocutionary Reader in

1845 gave "The May Queen" as an "example of joy, as

expressed in loud and lively tones," and "New-Year's Eve"

as an "example of pathos, as expressed in soft, low, slow,

and plaintive tones." 61 A Juvenile Speaker gave "The

Death of the Old Year" as a "piece for practice," 62 and one

of the best known of the elocution books, Epes Sargent's

Intermediate Standard Speaker, in 1857 printed "The

Charge of the Light Brigade" as four paragraphs of prose

with instructions concerning articulation, gestures, and



The fact that Tennyson was to Americans the pre-emi-

nent poet of the new era is shown nowhere more clearly

than in their imitation of his style. As has already been

noted, imitation of Tennyson began even before 1842, and

thereafter Tennyson's influence upon American poetry

grew steadily. The terms "Tennysonism" and "Tennyson-

ianism," coined immediately, soon became everyday expres-

sions with reviewers. In 1852 one wrote, "We do not re-

member having looked through a book of poems for several

years back, without noticing very clearly the influence of

Tennyson," 63 and another wrote of a young poet in 1859,

"Of course the model is Tennyson, for where is the young

poet now that imitates anybody else?" 64 By that time

Tennyson had placed his mark upon American poetry more

indelibly than had any other living poet.


During the period prior to the Idylls of the King, the

poems of 1842 were much more widely imitated than were

all of Tennyson's later poems combined. It was the singing

trochees of "Locksley Hall," the dreamy melody of "The

Lotos-Eaters" or "Oenone," and the sprightly liquid notes

of "Lilian" or "The Sea-Fairies" that could be traced most

clearly through American poetry. Tennyson^sjofluence

was definitely in the direction^f^unerl^m^^aiii^ypapoth

flowing-rliy^hTnr'EIven in the blank verse of "Ulysses," an

early favorite with imitators, itj&a&jbe rolling, reverberat-

ing^cjuality of the lines that was most copied. From Ten-

nyson's 1842 Poems dated 7he~greaT popularity of melodi-

ous feminine names and, to some extent, the increasing

popularity of brief lyrics written purely for their music. 65

Despite Poe's violent protestations to the contrary, his

and Thomas Holley Chivers' lyrics which have aroused

so much controversy concerning plagiarism undoubtedly

owed something to Tennyson. The names, Lenore, Anna-

bel Lee, Isadore, and Lily Adair — some used earlier than

1842 and some after — are closely akin to Lilian, Oriana,

and Eleanore, and it is difficult to believe that Chivers'

"Isadore," whose meter closely resembles that of "Locks-

ley Hall," was written before 1842, the year in which

"Locksley Hall" was published. 66 Three of the most quoted

stanzas (11. 119-24) of "Locksley Hall" will be sufficient to

call to mind its eight-stress, catalectic, trochaic lines:

For I dipt into the future, far as human eye could see,

Saw the Vision of the world, and all the wonders that would be;

Saw the heavens fill with commerce, argosies of magic sails,

Pilots of the purple twilight, dropping down their costly bales;

Heard the heavens fill with shouting, and there rain'd a ghastly


From the nation's airy navies grappling in the central blue.


Compare "Isadore":

While the world lay round me sleeping,

I, alone, for Isadore,

Patient Vigils lonely keeping —

Some one said to me while weeping,

"Why this grief forever more?"

And I answered, "I am weeping

For My blessed ISADORE!" 67

The first two and last two lines of every stanza of "Isadore"

fit the "Locksley Hall" cadence exactly, and although the

other lines vary it, the resemblance between the two poems

is remarkable. The source of the rhythm of Poe's "The

Raven" is probably distributed somewhat equally among

"Isadore," "Locksley Hall," and poems both English and

American which had already copied "Locksley Hall." 68

Of all of Tennyson's stanza forms, that of "Locksley Hall"

was by far the most copied in America through i860. With

its later start, the In Memoriam stanza began weakly to

rival it in the fifties, but no creation of Tennyson's can be

traced so clearly through American poetry as the rhythm of

"Locksley Hall" during the twenty years after the publica-

tion of the poem. 69 Within a few months after its appear-

ance, Longfellow used the stanza in "The Belfry of Bruges":

In the market-place of Bruges stands the belfry old and brown;

Thrice consumed and thrice rebuilded, still it watches o'er the


As the summer morn was breaking, on that lofty tower I stood,

And the world threw off the darkness, like the weeds of widow-

hood. 70

Longfellow copied the rhythm again at about the same time

in "Nuremberg." 71 Acknowledging that he was imitating

poetry of a "rather modern" character, James Gates Percival

used it in his "Classic Melodies" of 1843, 72 an d in the same

year William W. Story wrote "Light and Shadow":


Life is never quite unclouded, nor its circle wholly fair —

But the morn of Hope still creepeth on the shadow of Despair.

Janus-faced, within the Present ever stands the human mind, —

Hope's glad face still gazes forward, Memory's sadly looks be-

hind. 73

From this beginning the rhythm was taken up by nearly

all of the younger poets who were copying Tennyson pro-

fusely. Combining the lines into a five-line stanza, Lowell

used it to plead for abolition in "The Present Crisis":

When a deed is done for Freedom, through the broad earth's

aching breast

Runs a thrill of joy prophetic, trembling on from east to west,

And the slave, where'er he cowers, feels the soul within him


To the awful verge of manhood, as the energy sublime

Of a century bursts full-blossomed on the thorny stem of time


The rhythm was a favorite with Thomas Buchanan Read,

who used it in his two long poems "Christine" and "Inez"

of Poems (1847). Note the opening lines of "Christine":

Come my friend, and in the silence and the shadow wrapt apart,

I will loose the golden claspings of this sacred tome — the heart.

By the bole of yonder cypress, under branches spread like eaves,

We will sit where wavering sunshine weaves a romance in the

leaves. 75

Bayard Taylor used the "Locksley Hall" line in both his

Book of Romances, Lyrics and Songs and his Poems of the

Orient. He used it sometimes in three-line stanzas and some-

times in four. "The Birth of the Prophet" has the prophetic

tone of the latter part of "Locksley Hall":

For the oracles of Nature recognize a Prophet's birth —

Blossom of the tardy ages, crowning type of human worth —

And by miracles and wonders he is welcomed to the Earth


Mighty arcs of rainbow splendor, pillared shafts of purple fire

Split the sky and spanned the darkness, and with many a golden


Beacon-like, from all the mountains streamed the lambent me-

teors higher. 76

Some poets, keeping the rhythm intact, varied the stanza-

length greatly and sometimes even the length of the line

and the rime scheme. Several poets broke the line where

Tennyson placed his pause and thus formed four-line

stanzas which seem distinctly derived from "Locksley

Hall." 77 The most violent variation which still preserved

the Tennysonian rhythm was the change of Tennyson's

couplets into abab rime. Carefully preserving the pause in

the middle of the line and the precise trochees of "Locks-

ley Hall," R. H. Stoddard made that variation in his long

poem, "Burden of Unrest":

Thrilling with my youthful longings, which anticipated thee,

Dreams were mine of bridal chambers, and they colored all my


Like the rosy hues of evening, settling yonder on the sea

Blending with the waves, whose motion wafts the dying flame

along. 78

Chivers did the same thing in "The Queen of My Heart"

of Virginalia:

If thou art the only Pharos that can light my soul, at even,

When my Bark of Life is wrecking on Times' ocean tempest-


By what Beacon shall my spirit reach the peaceful Port of


From the Valley of Dark Shadows where so many men are

lost? 79

The imitators of "Locksley Hall" copied its rhythm in

poems upon almost every subject imaginable. Henry B.

Hirst used it to make passionate love to his lady; 80 Sarah

J. Hale copied it servilely in a rare monologue, "The Lady


to Her Falcon"; 81 and William Pembroke Mulchinock of

New York created a curiosity in his "The Dying Girl." The

poem is the story of Tennyson's "The May Queen" told in

"Locksley Hall" verses. 82 Many of the minor poets copied

both words and rhythm to the point of palpable plagiarism.

Tennyson's prophetic passage concerning universal peace

w T as a favorite. Charles E. Havens' "Bugle Song" is a typical

copying of it:

Lo! its echoes dying, dying, down the mystic vale of time,

Tell us that the sword shall cease to be an instrument of crime

And the drum shall be unbeaten, and the trumpet be unblown,

Ev'ry symbol of destruction shall at last be overthrown;

And the banner of our Union, emblem of the reign of love,

Shall be hoisted o'er the ramparts, overshadowed by the Dove. 83

The lines from "Locksley Hall" describing the time when

"the war-drum throbb'd no longer, and the battle-flags were

furl'd" are too well known to need quoting. 84

The In Memoriam stanza stands second in popularity

among Tennyson stanza-forms copied in America during

this period; it was, however, a poor second. Certainly, it did

not approach the popularity of that of "Locksley Hall" be-

fore i860. Apparently, nobody used the stanza as Tennyson

had — in a lengthy memorial to a lost friend. Americans,

who called In Memoriam monotonous and too long, made

no such attempt, and the well known American poets, many

of whom had never admired the poem, made almost no use

of the stanza. It was left largely to the underlings to initiate

the little flurry of imitations.

In another of its depreciations of Tennyson, Simms's

Southern Quarterly Review described the imitations which

began soon after the appearance of Tennyson's "pretty but

very fatiguing collection of small elegiac":

On the instant, the whole swarm of American poetasters found

that they had young friends to bewail, and wrote memorials.


Such a lugubrious clamor in lugubrious verse never before an-

noyed the ears of the public. The notion was — Tennyson is

popular. His quaintnesses take. His mysteries are so delicate. His

affectations so tickle the young ladies. We have only to Ten-

nysonize in order to share his popularity. 85

The In Memoriam quatrain of four-stress iambics with the

rime abba is well illustrated in its dignity and lugubrious-

ness by the first three stanzas of the prologue:

Strong Son of God, immortal Love,

Whom we, that have not seen thy face,

By faith, and faith alone, embrace,

Believing where we cannot prove;

Thine are these orbs of light and shade;

Thou madest Life in man and brute;

Thou madest Death; and lo, thy foot

Is on the skull which thou hast made.

Thou wilt not leave us in the dust:

Thou madest man, he knows not why,

He thinks he was not made to die;

And thou hast made him: thou art just.

Tennyson's claims to originality in the formation of this

stanza are not so clear as were those in regard to "Locksley

Hall." As has been noted, English poets had used it before

him, and American poetry offers several examples of the

stanza years before In Memoriam was published. Christo-

pher P. Cranch's thirty-eight stanza poem, "The Music of

Nature," is a remarkable example of sustained use of the

stanza as early as 1836. Some of the stanzas, though the last

line is three-stress instead of four, are amazingly close to

In Memoriam:

And still I roamed with lightsome heart,

And from the tones so intermingled,

Swift-gathering Fancy ever singled

One voice from every part.


And first I heard the mighty ocean

Go thundering to his empire bounds;

A voice of many blended sounds

In sad and wild commotion. 86

Regardless of these earlier uses of the stanza, however, one

can be certain that when the imitations of it began in the

eighteen-fifties they had their origin in In Memoriam.

John R. Thompson in his poem, "To One in Affliction,"

used the stanza in much the same way as Tennyson had. The

poem seeks to console a father who has lost his son:

Dear friend! if word of mine could seal

The bitter fount of all thy tears,

And, through the future's cloudy years,

Some glimpses of sunshine yet reveal —

That word I might not dare to speak:

A father's sorrow o'er his child

So sacred seems and undefiled,

To bid it cease we may not seek. 87

Another American followed Tennyson's use of the stanza

even more closely in commemoration of the death of James

Fenimore Cooper. As to literary merit, the verses follow

Tennyson afar off, but the stanza is preserved at all hazards:

A generation dates the taste

For literary joys complete,

From Leatherstocking's wondrous feat —

The joys that saved the hours from waste.

A sound is floating on the night,

Another sound, a hopeful sigh,

Like one whose tears begin to dry —

A recollection of delight.

Awakened by that memory

We see the casket vanish sole:

The spirit it exhaled is whole,

And spreads abroad o'er land and sea. 88


One of the queerest conglomerations of such memorials to

lost friends may be found in an annual for 1851 already re-

ferred to: Memory and Hope. Compiled in late 1850, the

book consisted almost entirely of wailing, lugubrious verses,

several imitating In Memoriam. It opened with a poetic

preface copying in both word and manner the first nine

stanzas of the main body of In Memoriam. The first stanza

is characteristic:

I hold it as a sacred boon, —

The memory of the loved and wept;

And still her vigil Hope hath kept

Till darkness brightened into noon.

The In Memoriam stanza seems to have been a favorite

with R. H. Stoddard and Thomas Bailey Aldrich, but ap-

parently neither ever used it as Tennyson did. Stoddard

used it several times in his Songs of Summer. He taught an

Emersonian moral in "Great and Small":

The insect with its gauzy wings

Sings and the moth and beetle grim;

And for the bee — I doat on him,

And know by heart the tune he sings!

Then learn this truth, the base of all,

That all are equal, so they fill

Their proper spheres, and do God's will:

There is no other Great and Small! 89

Aldrich's eulogy upon Longfellow preserved the dignity

and solemnity of Tennyson's lines:

Like him of old, whose touch divine

Drew water from the senseless stone,

Thy words have drawn a silver tone

Of music from this heart of mine.

O Poet-soul! O gentle one!

Thy thought has made my darkness light;

The solemn Voices of the Night

Have filled me with an inner tone. 90


Americans took the greatest of liberties with the stanza,

seldom giving it such dignity, and very rarely giving it Ten-

nyson's note of melancholy. William Gibson, minor Boston

poet, copied in both word and manner Section CVI of In

Memoriam, "Ring Out, Wild Bells," and produced a joy-

ful poem, "Christmas Chimes." 91 Grace Greenwood and

Julia Ward Howe liked to use the stanza in poems on vari-

ous subjects, of which the closing stanzas of Grace Green-

wood's "Lines I Sent with a Copy of Tennyson's 'In Memo-

riam' " are characteristic:

But, friend beloved, well I know

Thou wouldst be near me when I die,

Thy soul be last to say good-bye,

As down the lonely vale I go; —

And then to know through all thy days

Thou, holding dear my love apart,

Wouldst think much on my buried heart,

Were more than volumes of great praise.


At least one magazine writer used the stanza to praise his

love, 93 and the Canadian poet, Charles Sangster, combined

the In Memoriam stanza and tone with the plot of Tenny-

son's "The Death of the Old Year" to form what a reviewer

called one of the queerest mixtures he had ever seen. 94

Could Tennyson have seen all of the American imitations

of his poems, probably he would have been least pleased

with those of In Memoriam.

Of more literary value is a smaller group of imitations of

Tennyson's blank verse. Americans generally thought of

Tennyson as a lyric poet of singing rimes. Few if any of

them attempted such blank verse lyrics as Tennyson's

"Tears, Idle Tears." Stoddard in closely copying the theme

of that lyric in his three quatrains, "A Phantasy," rimed the

second and fourth lines. 95 Henry B. Hirst in an imitation

of "Morte d' Arthur" shifted his similar story into coup-


lets. 96 But the Tennysonian blank verse of "Ulysses," The

Princess, and the rural idylls had a perceptible influence

in their almost lyrical intensity, severity of verse-structure,

and strict regularity of stress. 97

The influence of "Ulysses" is especially clear. Lowell's

"Prometheus," written in 1843, was indebted to both

"Saint Simeon Stylites" and "Ulysses." The following lines

strongly remind one of the latter:

Yes, I am still Prometheus, wiser grown

By years of solitude, — that holds apart

The past and future, giving the soul room

To search into itself, — and long commune

With this eternal silence; — more a god,

In my long-suffering and strength to meet

With equal front the direct shafts of fate,

Than thou in thy faint-hearted despotism,

Girt with thy baby-toys of force and wrath.

Each hath his lonely peak, and on each heart

Envy, or scorn, or hatred, tears lifelong

With vulture beak; yet the high soul is left;

And faith, which is but hope grown wise, and love

And patience which at last shall overcome. 98

Even closer to the blank verse of "Ulysses" is Lowell's later

poem, "Columbus":

Here am I; for what end God knows, not I;

Westward still points the inexorable soul;

Here am I, with no friend but the sad sea,

The beating heart or this great enterprise

Which without me, would stiffen in swift death;

This have I mused on, since mine eye could first

Among the stars distinguish and with joy

Rest on that God-fed Pharos of the north,

On some blue promontory of heaven lighted

That juts far out into the upper sea. 99


Henry Timrod's "Arctic Voyager" is another poem greatly

indebted to "Ulysses":

This, and worse,

I suffered — let it pass— it has not tamed

My spirit nor the faith which was my strength,

Despite of waning years, despite the world

Which doubts, the few who dare, I purpose now —

A purpose long and thoughtfully resolved,

Through all its grounds of reasonable hope —

To seek beyond the ice which guards the Pole,

A sea of open water; for I hold,

Not without proofs, that such a sea exists,

And may be reached, though since this earth was made

No keel hath ploughed it. .


Probably no American poet was more strongly stirred by

Tennyson's blank verse than the minor Kentucky poet, Wil-

liam Ross Wallace, one of whose few distinctions was the

fact that Poe praised him highly. 101 In the wake of "Ulysses"

came several blank verse monologues in which great leaders

and travelers recounted their experiences. Wallace wrote

ones for Washington, Wordsworth, and Daniel Boone. In

all three he leaned heavily on "Ulysses" and, especially in

the last, coolly paraphrased:

I must away: for action is my life;

And it is base to triumph in a Past,

However big with mighty circumstance,

Danger full-faced and large heroic deed,

If yet a future calls. It calls to me.

What if some seventy years have thinned this hair,

And dimmed this sight, and made the blood roll on

Less riotous between the banks of life? —

This heart hath vigor yet. . . .

Yes! Surely I must go, and drink anew

The splendor that is in the pathless woods,


And wear the blue sky as a coronal,

And bid the torrent sound my conquering march,

And ponder far away from all that mars

The everlasting wonder of the world,

And with each dewy morning wake and feel

As though that world, so fresh, so beautiful

With sunrise and the mist, had just been made. 102

Lowell, Timrod, and Wallace all call instantly to mind

Tennyson's ringing lines:

I cannot rest from travel; I will drink

Life to the lees. All times I have enjoy'd

Greatly, have suffer'd greatly, both with those

That loved me, and alone; on shore, and when

Thro' scudding drifts the rainy Hyades

Vext the dim sea. 103

No other blank verse poem of Tennyson's left its mark

as distinctly as did "Ulysses." Thomas Bailey Aldrich pref-

aced his poem, "The Three Conceits," with a prologue

which he acknowledged to have modeled after that of The

Princess. 1041 Julia Ward Howe's long poem, "Rome," sug-

gests The Princess on nearly every page, and her "Where-

fore" used bits of narrative material from "Morte d' Arthur"

in its story of the passing glory of the Hungarian patriot,

Louis Kossuth. 105 Rural idylls such as William Ellery Chan-

ning's "Edward and Margaret," "The Friends," and "The

Sexton's Story," 106 Alfred B. Street's blank verse poems

in Drawings and Tin tings 107 and Stoddard's "Arcadian

Idyl" 108 remind one of Tennyson's "Dora," "The Garden-

er's Daughter," or "Love and Duty," but the connection is

intangible. It is extremely difficult to distinguish such an

influence from that of Wordsworth or others.

Sometimes American poets imitated specific poems of

Tennyson in subject, manner, and wording. Timrod and

Stoddard wrote such imitations of "Break, Break, Break."

Note Timrod's "Hark to the Shouting Wind":


Hark to the shouting Wind!

Hark to the flying Rain!

And I care not though I never see

A Bright blue sky again.

There are thoughts in my breast to-day

That are not for human speech;

But I hear them in the driving storm,

And the roar upon the beach.

And oh, to be with that ship

That I watch through the blinding brine!

O Wind! for thy sweep of land and sea!

Sea! for a voice like thine!

Shout on, thou pitiless Wind,

To the frightened and flying Rain!

1 care not though I never see

A calm blue sky again. 109

Thomas Buchanan Read wrote two obvious imitations of

"The Lady of Shalott." Anyone who remembers Tenny-

son's nine-line stanza, its refrain, and the dreamy atmos-

phere of the poem will instantly recognize them in "The

Maid of Linden Lane":

While you sit as in a trance,

Where the moon-made shadows dance,

From the distaff of Romance

I will spin a silken skein:

Down the misty years gone by

I will turn your azure eye;

You shall see the changeful sky

Falling down or hanging high

Over the halls of Linden Lane.

Ah, yes, lightly sing and laugh-

Half a child and woman half;

For your laughter's but the chaff

From the melancholy grain;

And, ere many years shall fly,


Age will dim your laughing eye,

And like me you'll totter by;

For remember, love, that I

Was the Maid of Linden Lane. 110

Others copied ''The Lady of Shalott" almost as servilely, 111

and "The Ballad of Oriana" was another favorite with imi-

tators, especially among the minor poets. Henry B. Hirst's

"Eleanore" and William Pembroke Mulchinock's "Aileen

Aroon" are puerile copies of it:

I am lone without thy love,


And my life with grief is wove,


While the scorn thy glances dart

Makes a winter in my heart,

Eleanore! 112

Oh! but my step is weak,

Aileen, aroon!

Wan and pale is my cheek,

Aileen, aroon!

Come o'er the ocean tide,

No more to leave my side,

Come, my betrothed bride,

Aileen, aroon! 113

"The Death of the Old Year," several imitations of which

have already been mentioned, was another favorite. Hirst

wrote three separate versions of it. 114 Lowell acknowledged

"Sir Galahad" as the inspiration for his "The Vision of Sir

Launfal," and the "Prelude to Part First" of "The Vision"

is very close to Tennyson's "The Sleeping Palace." 115 "The

Talking Oak" was several times borrowed bodily, notably

in parts of Story's "The Mistake"; 116 "The May Queen"

was copied in poems which sound like parodies; 117 "A Fare-

well" was also frequently imitated — once by a Virginian

who set out to "improve" it, 118 and even the songs to the

owl had their imitators. 119


Though fewer post- 1842 poems were thus closely copied,

several imitations of the songs of The Princess have been

found, 120 and Julia Ward Howe, James Barron Hope, and

the Alabama poet, A. B. Meek, reproduced "The Charge

of the Light Brigade." Of the three reproductions, Mrs.

Howe's "Balaklava" is the poorest poem and the closest imi-


They gave the fatal order, Charge!

And so, the light Brigade went down,

Where bristling brows of cannon crown

The front of either marge.

Traced all in fire we saw our way,

And the black goal of Death beyond —

It was no moment to despond,

To question, or to pray.

Firm in the saddle, stout of heart,

With plume and sabre waving high,

With gathering stride and onward cry,

The band was swift to start. 121

In a rare imitation of the "Ode on the Death of the Duke

of Wellington," John Esten Cooke commemorated the

death of Elisha Kent Kane, the arctic explorer, 122 and Stod-

dard in "The Serenade of Ma-Han-Shan" wrote one of the

earliest apparent imitations of the later widely copied song,

"Come into the Garden, Maud." 123

More important than stanza forms, themes, or verbal

echoes in Tennyson's influence upon American poets are

his tunes and musical language. It was Tennyson's intox-

icating music that made Bayard Taylor fearful of its con-

tagion, and its contagion is well shown by the mark that

it placed upon the work of the younger poets. That mark

is evasive, and yet certain. Often without being able to put

his finger upon a particular spot to call an echo, the reader

can yet feel the Tennysonian tune as he reads. The Amer-

ican poems which show this influence most distinctly may


be divided into the two groups used in studying the pre-

1842 influence, those of the "Mariana" and of the "Lilian"


Most important are the poems in the dreamy, mournful

vein of "Mariana" and "Oenone." Alice Gary has caught

their language and music in her "The Daughter":

Often the harmless flock she sees

Lying white along the grassy leas,

Like lily-bells weighed down with bees,

Sometimes the boatman's horn she hears

Rousing from rest the plowman's steers,

Lowing untimely to their peers.

And now and then the moonlight snake

Curls up its white folds, for her sake,

Closer within the poison brake.

But still she keeps her lonesome way,

Or if she pauses, 'tis to say

Some word of comfort, else to pray.

For 'tis a blustery night withal,

In spite of star or moonlight's fall,

On the two whipperwill's sweet call — 124

William W. Story's "Night-Watch" has the Tennysonian

flavor even more distinctly:

On the wall the shadow sleepeth,

And the dreary wind is sighing,

Whispering restlessly it creepeth,

Now uprising, and now dying,

Through the leaves, and through the vine

That around the window twine,

While my silent watch I keep —

Sleep, beloved! sleep! 125

Thomas Bailey Aldrich's "Maud Allinggale" and George

H. Boker's "I Sit Beneath the Sunbeam's Glow" might al-

most pass for parodies of "Oenone":

The wind was toying with her hair,

As on the turret top she stood;


Her gaze was on the bending wood,

And in her eyes a dim despair.

Moaning Oenone, sad and pale,

Sweet Psyche when her love had gone

Were not more tearful or forlorn

Than Maud of Allinggale. 126

I sit beneath the sunbeam's glow,

Their golden currents round us flow,

Their mellow kisses warm my brow,

But all the world is dreary.

The vernal meadow round me blooms,

And flings to me its soft perfumes,

Its breath is like an opening tomb's

I'm sick of life, I'm weary. 127

No poem of the group had a more contagious music and

atmosjDherethan that of "The Lotos-Eaters. ' Several Tines

from itsJiE&L£tai!za exemplify its mood andlmanner :

In the afternoon they came unto a land

In which it seemed always afternoon.

All round the coast the languid air did swoon,

Breathing like one that hath a weary dream.

Full-faced above the valley stood the moon;

And, like a downward smoke, the slender stream

Along the cliff to fall and pause and fall did seem.

It is easy to see how this languid, dreary mood could cast a

speLLurjojija ^young__rjget. Whether consciously or uncon-

sciously, Story was under the spell in his "The Island


Dallied we here, and loitered there,

There was no hurry to be gone,

Silken soft was the murmurous air,

Pleasant the beams of the rising sun, —

In and out of many a cove,

Anchored beside a shady shore,

Drooping the sail and bending the oar,

Day after day thus idly wore, —

This was the life we used to love. 128


Paul Hamilton Hayne's variation of the meter in "The

Realm of Rest" destroyed the drowsy mood, but the tune

and the language are still Tennysonian:

Within the realm that Nature boundeth,

Are those balmy shores of peace,

Where no passion-torrent soundeth,

And no storm-wind seeks release?

Rest they 'mid the waters golden,

Of some strange untravelled sea,

Where low, Halcyon winds have stolen,

Lingering round them slumbrously? 1J


In "The Sea-Fairies," "The Merman," and "The Mer-

maid," Tennyson somewhat combined the atmosphere of

"The Lotos-Eaters" and the sprightliness of his feminine

portraits, and the combination was popular with American

imitators. 130 William Ellery Channing almost plagiarized

"The Sea-Fairies" in his "To My Companions":

Ye heavy-hearted Mariners

Who sail this shore,

Ye patient, ye who labor,

Sitting at the sweepingoar,

And see afar the flashing Sea-gulls play,

On the free waters, and the glad bright day,

Twine with his hand the spray,

From out your dreariness,

I speak for I am yours

On these gray shores. 131

Bayard Taylor's "The Waves" reminds one of both "The

Sea-Fairies" and "The Mermaid":

Children are we

Of the restless sea,

Swelling in anger or sparkling in glee;

We follow our race,

In shifting chase

Over the boundless ocean-space!

Who hath beheld where the race begun?


Who shall behold it run?

Who shall behold it run? 132

From the beginning, Americans greatly admired Tenny-

son's light and airy lines to "Lilian," "Madeline," "Mar-

garet," "Rosalind," and "Kate." Lowell might be said to

have begun the American imitations of these feminine

portraits, and from his beginning before 1842, they were

never lacking in imitators. Stoddard's series of "Portraits"

in his Foot-Prints are, everyone, echoes of Tennyson, and,

strangely enough, Stoddard used Tennyson's names and

gave to the different names the characteristics which Ten-

nyson had given them. 133 "Kate" is

Light — as every Kate is light —

A fickle and coquetish thing:

Very changeable in mind,

Coy, inconstant as the wind,

Now a smile and then a pout,

Now a sigh and then a shout!

Passionate and loving — cold,

Gentle, and a blisterer bold;

Varying — take her every way,

Kate is like an April day;

Shades and brightness, sun and shower,

Everything within an hour.

In "Isabel" — the name of Tennyson's pensive portrait —

Stoddard described a lady calm and dignified:

Very, very fair is she,

Flower of all the family.

Fair — but let the truth be told —

Isabel is somewhat cold.

Stately and reserved and nice,

Prim and studied and precise;

Very dignified in mien

Lofty — too much like a Queen.

Stoddard's "Portraits" are fitting examples of the scores of

"laughing, prattling, sportive" Sallies, "dreamy-eyed" Lil-


lyans, ''hoping, fearing" Lily Lees, and "ever roving, ever

loving" Cora Lyles that flitted through the pages of Amer-

ican gift-books and magazines in the eighteen-forties and

fifties. 134 Few of the group had any literary merit, but they

form one of the most reliable means for measuring Tenny-

son's influence, for Tennyson's feminine portraits are prob-

ably more distinctly his than any others of his shorter poems.

With all of these imitations of Tennyson, there grew up

a sort of caricatured Tennysonian language. Imitators

tended to copy especially Tennyson's eccentricities and

mannerisms of speech. In making that point concerning

William Ellery Channing, Poe wrote one of the best ex-

planations of what was meant by "Tennysonisms" in dic-

tion. He listed compound epithets, the Biblical eth verbal

ending, present tenses used as past, peculiarly used prepo-

sitions, and eccentric pronunciations. The imitators, said

Poe, had adopted and exaggerated Tennyson's "character-

istic defect, having mistaken it for his principal merit." 135

This defect, the Literary World called "the exquisitely far-

fetched in poetic expressions," 136 and Cornelius C. Felton

thought that Tennyson was the worst of men for Americans

to copy for "with much genius and an exquisite ear for

musical rhythm, [he] has also a Titanian fondness for quaint

and dainty expressions, affected turns, and mawkishly ef-

feminate sentiment; and . . . would be the worst model,

therefore, not only for a young poet to imitate, but even to

read; so contagious are the vices of his manner." 137

Probably Lowell was reprimanded for his "Tennyson-

ism" more than any other American poet of the period, but

it was the obscure and little noticed versifiers who bore the

stamp of Tennyson most clearly. It would be difficult to

imagine a book's being more Tennysonian than Mulchi-

nock's Ballads and Songs, Hirst's The Coming of the Mam-

moth and Other Poems, or William Wallace's Meditations

in America and Other Poems. Even a casual glance through


these books will show Tennyson's mannerisms, exaggerated

and perverted, on almost every page. The work of Taylor,

Stoddard, Story, Read, or Timrod was above these, but they

exhibited much "Tennysonism." When reviewers used

their coined words, "Tennysonism" and "Tennysonian-

ism," they usually referred to matters of language, but, as

has been seen, the most Tennysonian poets of America

showed their "Tennysonism" in almost every conceivable



Several Americans came to know Tennyson personally

during the years in which he was becoming a celebrity.

Literary Americans, and many who were not literary, jour-

neyed to England with their predominant aim the meeting

of famous English literary figures. Since Tennyson lived a

rather secluded life and since he had a distaste for Amer-

icans collectively, American travelers had much difficulty

gaining an audience with him unless they were well armed

with letters of introduction. This inaccessibility of Tenny-

son made him, all the more, prize game for the celebrity-

seekers and in turn led to the annoyances which Tennyson

suffered from Americans in later years when, armed with

spy-glasses, tourists tracked him to his most secluded haunts,

and New York reporters, notebook in hand, climbed the

trees in his garden to overhear his conversation.

Thomas B. Read wrote in i860 of a Boston artist who

had remained in London for months trying in vain to get

Tennyson and Carlyle to sit for portraits. 138 Read himself

went to London several times in the eighteen-fifties for the

purpose of painting Tennyson's portrait, and it was with

the greatest difficulty that he finally gained his end. 139 On

one visit, Read wrote, Tennyson talked "so disrespectfully"

of America that he was on the verge of "letting him [Ten-

nyson] alone severely." 14 °


Tennyson took no pains to hide his poor opinion of

America. James Fenimore Cooper, one of the first Amer-

icans with whom he came in contact, stirred his resent-

ment, 141 as Cooper had stirred that of most Englishmen,

and Tennyson shared the general English feeling that

Americans were uncultured. When in 1858 Americans

wanted to buy Thomas Woolner's bust of him, Tennyson

blocked the trade with specific instructions to Woolner not

to let it go to America, 142 and Tennyson is said to have re-

marked years later that the only thing he ever wanted to

see in America was the grave of Edgar Allan Poe. 143 Never-

theless, the little noticed poem of 1852, "Hands All Round,"

toasted England's "gigantic daughter of the West," 144 and

Tennyson's feeling was more kindly to Americans individ-

ually than to them collectively. To American poets who

visited him he was quite cordial. 145

One of the first Americans to share Tennyson's hospital-

ity was Emerson. On his second visit to England in 1848,

Emerson met Tennyson at the home of Coventry Patmore

and later visited Tennyson in his own house. Emerson has

graphically described his first impression of Tennyson:

I was contented with him, at once. He is tall, scholastic-looking,

no dandy, but a great deal of plain strength about him, and

though cultivated, quite unaffected; quiet, sluggish sense and

strength, refined, as all English are, and good-humored. . . .

There is in him an air of general superiority, that is very satis-

factory. He lives very much with his college set, — Spedding,

Brookfield, Hallam, Rice, and the rest, — and has the air of one

who is accustomed to be petted and indulged by those he lives

with, like George Bradford. Take away Hawthorne's bashful-

ness, and let him talk easily and fast, and you would have a

pretty good Tennyson.

Neither at Coventry Patmore's nor at Tennyson's home

did Emerson have much opportunity to talk with Tenny-

son; therefore, Emerson was eagerly anticipating another


visit as he passed through London again a month later, but

then Tennyson was in Ireland. 146

No American enjoyed a more pleasant visit with Tenny-

son in the eighteen-fifties than the Massachusetts poet, Fred-

erick Goddard Tuckerman. During the three days which

Tuckerman spent in Tennyson's home, Farringford, on the

Isle of Wight, in January, 1855, he and Tennyson had long

and interesting talks in Tennyson's little smoking attic. 147

Tennyson recited his poems, and the two discussed them

together. As a farewell gift, Tennyson gave Tuckerman the

original manuscript of "Locksley Hall," an act which Tuck-

erman spoke of as "a favour of which I may be justly proud,

as he says he has never done such a thing in his life before,

for anybody." 148 Several letters and gifts passed between

Tennyson and Tuckerman following the visit, 149 and upon

hearing of Tuckerman's death in 1873, Mrs. Tennyson

wrote of him to his sister, "He must ever retain one of the

foremost places among American guests who have done

honour to their country and whom it is good for us to have

known." 150

In June, 1857, Bayard Taylor made the first of his series

of visits to Tennyson. Thackeray had written a letter of

introduction for him, and Tennyson received him cor-

dially. Taylor spent two days at Farringford. He and Ten-

nyson took a long walk along the chalk cliffs of the island,

and they talked pleasantly together for many hours. In a

letter to George H. Boker, Taylor described his visit:

We smoked many a pipe together, and talked of poetry, re-

ligion, politics, and geology. I thought he seemed gratified with

his American fame; he certainly did not say an unkind word

about us. He had read my Oriental poems and liked them. He

spoke particularly of their imagery and conscientious finish. I

need not tell you that his verdict is a valuable one to me. Our

intercourse was most cordial and unrestrained, and he asked

me, at parting, to be sure and visit him every time I came to

England. His wife is one of the best women I ever met with, and


his two little boys, Hallam and Lionel, are real cherubs of chil-


Taylor was particularly impressed by "the delightful fam-

ily circle." He thought that Tennyson was "fortunate and

happy in his family relations" and that "with his large and

liberal nature, his sympathies for what is true and noble in

humanity, and his depth and tenderness of feeling," he

deserved to be so. 151

Many American travelers were overjoyed to get a mere

glimpse of Tennyson. One saw in Cheltenham "a very re-

markable looking man . . . whose expression seemed en-

tirely unlike anything he had seen in England, in its ideality

and intensity." The American did not know who the man

was, but when later he learned that Tennyson was at Chelt-

enham at that precise time, he was "quite sure" that he

had seen the great poet and was delighted. 152 The vivacious

and effusive Madame Octavia Walton LeVert of Mobile,

Alabama, fluttered over meeting Tennyson at a reception.

He had, she thought, a "poetic face, over which lingers a

soft shade of sadness." 153 Hawthorne saw Tennyson mo-

mentarily at a Manchester arts exhibition in 1857 and was

overjoyed to have seen him. 154 Hawthorne ran to get his

wife so that she, too, might see Tennyson, and together they

feasted their eyes upon "this one poet of our day," but they

never met him.

The record which Hawthorne has left of his fleeting

glimpse of Tennyson is interesting. He thought Tennyson

"the most picturesque figure, without affectation" that he

had ever seen:

He seemed as if he did not see the crowd nor think of them,

but as if he defended himself from them by ignoring them al-

together; nor did anybody but myself cast a glance at him. . . .

There was an entire absence of stiffness in his figure; no set-up

in him at all; no nicety or trimness; and if there had been it

would have spoilt his whole aspect. Gazing at him with all my


eyes, I liked him well, and rejoiced more in him than in all the

other wonders of the exhibition.

Hawthorne also heard Tennyson's voice, "a bass voice, but

not of resounding depth; a voice rather broken as it were,

and ragged about the edges, but pleasant to the ear." In his

greeting of friends, Tennyson "betrayed his shy and se-

cluded habits," and Hawthorne "was indescribably sen-

sible of a morbid painfulness in him, a something not to be

meddled with." Hawthorne wished to see more of Tenny-

son, would have liked to "smoke a cigar with him," but

was much too shy to seek an introduction. When James T.

Fields later told Tennyson of the incident, Tennyson re-

gretted that Hawthorne had not introduced himself. "I am

sure," said Tennyson, "I should have been glad to meet a

man like Hawthorne anywhere." 155

Emerson, Tuckerman, Taylor — these began the long pro-

cession of American literati who in later years visited Ten-

nyson and enjoyed talking with him and hearing him recite

his poems. Fields, Longfellow, Lowell, Holmes, and scores

of others formed the procession and were cordially received.

As Tennyson wrote Thackeray in reply to Thackeray's let-

ter introducing Bayard Taylor, "... my 'castle' was never

yet 'barricaded & entrenched' against good fellows." 156

With few exceptions the American literary figures proved

"good fellows." Many of them confessed that they ap-

proached Farringford and Aldworth, Tennyson's later

home, as pilgrims to the shrine of the first poet of their


Chapter VI




after his becoming Poet Laureate did little to strengthen

his position as the grand representative of the age. Put-

nam's Magazine noted a strong public sentiment that in

the title-poem, "Maud," Tennyson was "recreant to the

hope and humanity of the age." 1 Nevertheless, the volume,

Maud, and Other Poems, received superlative praise in

several quarters. Thomas R. Lounsbury, as a student at

Yale, wrote in 1858 that "no work, published within the

last twenty years, has been the subject of more contradictory

opinions than the Maud of Tennyson." 2 Few criticisms of

the poem were moderate: the critics were either strong in

approval or harsh in disapproval.

Through an arrangement with Tennyson, Ticknor and

Fields received proof sheets of Maud, and Other Poems

nearly two months before the publication of the English

edition. 3 Ticknor and Fields announced their edition as

"in press" as early as June 15, 1855, 4 and on July 31, the

Boston Daily Evening Transcript announced that the book

would be published "in advance of its appearance in Eng-

land, in a few days." Apparently, Ticknor and Fields

planned to get ahead of the London publisher, but they

missed that by several days. On August 2, Edward Moxon

advertised his edition in the London Times as "just pub-


lished," and Ticknor and Fields's long expected edition was

finally issued on August 18. 5

Several days before the official date of publication, Tick-

nor and Fields sent advance sheets of the poems to several

of their friends and reviewers. 6 The Boston Daily Evening

Transcript reviewed the book on July 31 "from leaves in

the rough proof." Bayard Taylor received the book in some

form by August 6 for review in the New York Tribune/

and extracts from, and fragmentary descriptions of, the po-

ems were floating about in newspapers and magazines weeks

before the book appeared. 8 Referring to the wide publicity

which it had already received, Bayard Taylor assured James

T. Fields on August 6 that the book would "sell im-

mensely." 9

The first American edition numbered three thousand

copies, and there is ample proof that it sold well. 10 Within

less than a month of the first publication, two thousand

more copies were printed, and by March, 1856, two more

new impressions had been issued. The poems of Maud, and

Other Poems were included in Ticknor and Fields's one-

and two-volume editions of Poems in 1856, and in all of

their later editions of complete Poems. The poems as pub-

lished in 1855 underwent only one significant revision —

that of the third London edition of 1856 in which several

additions were made to "Maud." This final text of the

poems appeared in America first in Ticknor and Fields's

"Blue and Gold" pocket edition of Poetical Works in 1857.

Maud, and Other Poems consisted of eight poems:

"Maud," "The Brook," "The Letters," "Ode on the Death

of the Duke of Wellington," "The Daisy," "To the Rev. F.

D. Maurice," "Will," and "The Charge of the Light Bri-

gade." The "Ode on the Death of the Duke of Welling-

ton" and "The Charge of the Light Brigade" had ap-

peared earlier, 11 and numerous magazines and newspapers

had already presented them to the American public. 12 Both


appeared in Maud, and Other Poems greatly revised. Also,

the title-poem was not entirely new. Tennyson had con-

tributed to a London annual, The Tribute, in 1837 some

' 'Stanzas" ["Oh! that 'twere possible"] which formed the

nucleus of "Maud." 13 Much revised, the "Stanzas" became

Section XXIV of "Maud" as it appeared in 1855. A portion

of the "Stanzas" had appeared in America in 1845 when

Charles Astor Bristed, then a student at Cambridge Uni*

versity, sent them to the Knickerbocker •/* from which they

were copied by several other magazines and newspapers. 15

In its unfavorable review of Maud, and Other Poems, the

Knickerbocker proudly remembered that "the very best

thing in the volume" had appeared in its pages ten years

earlier, and regretted that in spite of that kernel of excel-

lence, the book would not increase the number of Tenny-

son's admirers in America. 16


It is doubtless true that "Maud" tended to diminish

rather than to increase the number of Tennyson's admirers,

but many of his most enthusiastic admirers greeted the

new poem with even greater applause than that which they

had accorded earlier works. Both the Boston Daily Evening

Transcript and the New York Daily Tribune in their early

reviews (July 31, August 7, 1855) were laudatory. Noting

that "Maud" contained "lines of great power and beauty,"

the Transcript quoted many of the "most beautiful pas-

sages" to show Tennyson's exquisite fancy and striking

originality. And the Tribune gave the poem higher praise

than it had accorded In Memoriam:

Tennyson has been silent too long. . . . But his tongue has

lost nothing of its strange enchantment. He yet speaks in those

weird and mystic tones which weave a resistless spell around the

imagination, even when they fail to present a lucid concep-


tion to the intellect. The poem which gives its name to this

volume is a deep rhythmical tragedy. Over the whole scene rests

a somber, lurid light, relieved at intervals by bursts of ten-

der rapture, but not sufficient to overcome the prevailing blood-

red tone of the representation. In keeping with the rapid

transitions of sentiment, the verse often changes from extreme

ruggedness of diction to a soft and liquid flow of exquisite sweet-

ness and grace, preserving the measure from monotony and the

reader from satiety. None of Tennyson's former poems are more

elaborately constructed, or show more of the dainty artifices of

composition, in which he takes such a genial delight. Some of

these peculiarities are indulged in to excess, creating a conspic-

uous mannerism, especially in the use of sonorous alliterations,

and the sudden contrasts between an almost prosaic homeliness

of expression, and language of singularly rich and melting mel-


Tennyson's American admirers who had praised his early

poems so highly gave "Maud" its highest praise. They saw

in it a return to the melody and pure music of the earlier

period. Several who had deplored Tennyson's change in

In Memoriam praised "Maud" highly. Lowell thought

"Maud" "wonderfully fine — the antiphonal voice to 'In

Memoriam.' " He "tried to read it aloud, but broke down

in the middle in a subdued passion of tears." 17 Years later

Lowell pronounced "Maud" the "strongest and most char-

acteristic" of Tennyson's poems. 18 Emerson, too, gave high

praise: "When I read 'Maud' then I say, Here is one of those

English heads again such as in the Elizabethan days were

rammed full of delightful fancies. What colouring like Ti-

tian, colour like the dawn." 19 And Edward Everett Hale,

writing for the North American Revieiv its first review of

Tennyson, called "Maud" a "charming rosary, strung of

beads, very unlike one another, of playful or sad, or medita-

tive poetry, always poetry, and always natural, fresh, true,

and new." 20

A little group of Tennyson's admirers gained their first

impressions of "Maud" during a pleasant afternoon in


beautiful Lawton's Valley, near Newport, Rhode Island.

Longfellow, George William Curtis, Thomas Gold Apple-

ton (Longfellow's brother-in-law), and Julia Ward Howe

were of the party. Appleton wrote, "We are all charmed

with Tennyson's new poem," 21 and Longfellow described

the afternoon in his journal:

We all went to pass the afternoon in Lawton's Valley with the

Howes. Strolled down into the deep green gorge by the mill-

stream, and seated by the ruins of the old mill, Curtis read to us

Tennyson's new poem, Maud. Very beautiful, though there is in

parts a spirit of ferocity which I do not like. But the loves of the

hero and heroine are exquisitely drawn, and the songs deli-

cious. 22

Julia Ward Howe also pleasantly remembered the read-


Tennyson has a marvelous feeling for the music of words and

phrases. You feel their music even apart from their sense. And I

shall always hear the murmur of running water through the

lines, when I read them again. How perfect an accompaniment

the brook made to the poem. . . . 23

Several reviewers noted in "Maud" a return to Tenny-

son's earlier manner. Finding "traces of an earlier and

youthful treatment in 'Maud,' " Putnam's Magazine wrote,

"The subtle melody, the dainty word-choosing, and the

sonorous alliteration, belong to a youthful period, and a

youth which we hope may be immortal." 24 And the Knick-

erbocker thought that the echoes of "Tennyson's earlier

muse" formed the poem's only merit. 25

These traces of melodious music were found especially

in the songs, the only portion of "Maud" to receive consist-

ent praise. They were published again and again as extracts

in newspapers and magazines, and American musical set-

tings for "Come into the Garden, Maud" and "Go Not,

Happy Day" appeared almost immediately after their pub-

lication. In reviewing J. C. D. Parker's popular setting for


"Come into the Garden, Maud," Dwight's Journal of

Music praised the song more than the setting:

It was rather a dangerous matter, to attempt to render Tenny-

son's dainty verses into music. Because the words are perfect

without music; or rather they are music; and because this dainty

poet has the daintiest admirers, and who can so catch his tone,

his spirit as to hope to suit these? We only wonder therefore that

the composer has succeeded so well. 26

Several reviewers refused to quote "Come into the Garden,

Maud," on the grounds that it was too well known, 27 and

they were unanimous in praise of it. In its extremely un-

favorable review of "Maud," the Southern Literary Mes-

senger considered the song "proof that Tennyson has not

lost the gift of poesy," 28 and the New York Daily Times

thought that the songs constituted the greatest beauties of

the poem: "Birds in the High Hall-garden" was a "charm-

ing lyric of quaint simplicity," and "Come into the Garden,

Maud" was "not surpassed by any of Mr. Tennyson's pre-

vious efforts." 29

Frederick Goddard Tuckerman and George William

Curtis praised the lyric quality of "Maud." Doubtless think-

ing of its extreme irregularity of versification, Tuckerman

wrote, ". . . it seems to me that only poets can fully ap-

preciate and enjoy the singular beauty of 'Maud' "; 30 and

Curtis declared that because of its music "Maud" had be-

come "already a household word":

Tennyson's diocese is large, and is composed of those who have a

sensitive appreciation of the subtlest charm of poetry. . . .

Now comes "Maud," a passionate love poem, full of burning

social protest and indignation. It came in the summer, and

young men and maidens hailed it as the best flower of the year.

In lonely, pleasant places — in the shadow of hills, and on the

sea-shore, the penetrant music of the poem made its way. 31

Upon reading this article of Curtis's concerning the new

poem which was "moving polite youth in the East," Wil-


liam Dean Howells was led to buy a copy of "Maud," the

first poem of Tennyson's that he ever read, and thus, said

Howells, "I first became acquainted with the poet who at

once possessed himself of what was best worth having in

me." 32 Writing years later, Howells described his sensa-


Of course, "Maud" seemed to me the finest poem I had read,

up to that time, ... I did not like all parts of it equally well,

and some parts of it seemed thin and poor (though I would not

suffer myself to say so then), and they still seem so. But there

were whole passages and spaces of it where divine and perfect

beauty lifted me above life. I did not fully understand the poem

then; I do not fully understand it now, but that did not and does

not matter; for there is something in poetry that reaches the soul

by other avenues than the intellect.

Intoxicated by "Maud," Howells sought other poems of

Tennyson, and from that point, he said, "This great poet

opened to me a whole world of thinking and feeling, where

I had my being with him in that mystic intimacy which

cannot be put into words." 33

Very soon after the publication of "Maud" it became

clear that the poem was to receive some of the harshest

criticism that had ever been dealt out to Tennyson, and

his supporters began to square off for the battle. The Bos-

ton Daily Evening Transcript wrote, "It has been very se-

verely handled in many quarters, but we are not disposed

on that account to abate our admiration of the poem in

any particular. . . . Maud is eminently a favorite of

ours." 34 And the Editor of the Easy Chair, noting that the

public had labeled the poem "a failure," staunchly held

his ground, "We sit in our Chair and believe in 'Maud'

still." 35

"Maud" took Tennyson's readers by surprise. Accus-

tomed to his tranquil unconcern about social and political

matters, they were astonished by this violent arraignment


of contemporary society. Apparently, most readers failed to

dissociate the hero of "Maud" from the author, and this

failure led to their attributing the actions and thoughts of

a man on the verge of insanity to Tennyson himself.

With the single exception of the songs, every portion and

every quality of "Maud" received severe handling from

some quarter. The plot was "fevered and forced," lacking

both coherence and truth. 36 In both plot and versification,

the poem was "a bungling hotch-potch." 37 The characters,

"too shadowily defined," were both unnatural and "dis-

eased." 38 The style was "harsh and hard," lacking "the

sensuousness, the harmony, the satisfying completeness and

rounded grace, so characteristic of Tennyson in his ordinary

poetic moods." 39 The tone was too morbid and melancholy.

The poem should have been named not "Maud" but

"Maudlin." 40 It presented a "false view of life, its obliga-

tions, and its duties." 41 The "whole sentiment of the poem"

ignored "the nobler and purer feelings of humanity." The

hero of the poem lived "his life of selfish desire and selfish

enjoyment . . . without one thought of anything better,

nobler than himself — the summit of creation": he wor-

shiped nothing; he reverenced nothing. 42

The religious periodicals unanimously condemned the

"distrustful, irreligious character" of "Maud." The Chris-

tian Examiner declared, "Notwithstanding some clever

points made by Mr. Tennyson, enough that is puerile, dis-

tempered, and audacious goes philandering and blustering

through the pages of 'Maud' to thin very seriously the bays

of the English Laureate." 43 The Theological and Literary

Journal of New York thought that "Maud" tended to "de-

base the morals" and "pervert and degrade" the taste of

young readers. 44 And the Ladies' Repository, a "monthly

periodical devoted to literature and religion," after a long

account of its former pleasures in reading Tennyson and


its faithfulness to him, expressed its keen disappointment

in "Maud":

How our own heart leaped for joy when it learned that "Maud"

was in press, and how eagerly we seized the first volume which

came to the booksellers' shelves. Alas! the remembrance of its

impression is painful — is very unpleasant; and now that it is

announced another volume is soon to be given us [Idylls of the

King], we know not whether to look forward hopefully or to

anticipate another tribute to the "spirit of the age," which gloats

over tales of war and incidents of the horrible kind. 45

Various uncomplimentary definitions were coined for

"Maud" by its critics. The Albion called it "a morbid, mis-

anthropical, autobiographical, episodical tale, relieved by

gushes of genuine and exquisite poetry." 46 Liking the Al-

bion's definition, the Home Journal (September 15, 1855)

quoted it as "a gem of a little deep-souled sentence" and

continued its own denunciation of "Maud" by assuring its

readers that "our New York poet Stoddard (who is the most

like what the critics represent Tennyson to be) would write

you a hundred times better volume of poems, for a hundred

dollars in six days." The Southern Literary Messenger

called "Maud" "a morbid, splenetic, fragmentary effusion,

in which false philosophy is embodied in vicious verse —

quite unworthy in all respects of Mr. Tennyson." The Mes-

senger's reviewer, possibly its editor, John R. Thompson,

could not believe that the poem was "favorably regarded

even by Tennyson himself."

No known review of "Maud," American or British, was

more severe than that in the Southern Literary Messenger:

If this extraordinary compound of mysticism and misan-

thropy had not appeared with the name of the English Laureate

on the title page, we should have been certain that it had its

origin in one of two exceptional conditions of the mind — either

that it came from some unhappy lunatic, whose poetic faculty

had been disordered and now vibrated discordantly, "like sweet


bells jangled, out of tune and harsh," or that it was the produc-

tion of some wag, who designed an attempt on the critics by

endeavoring to palm off nonsense on them for profound phi-

losophy. Though occasionally we discover a passage of genuine

and exquisite poetry, worthy of the author of Locksley Hall,

the stuff so greatly preponderates, that we are tempted one hun-

dred and odd times (there being so many pages in Ticknor and

Field's [sic], edition of it) before getting at the conclusion, to

throw Maud out of the window and take to some more sensible

and healthful reading. And the reader is the more provoked

with the performance, because he is left in a painful state of

indecision, after having accomplished its perusal, as to which de-

serves the greater amount of censure, the story itself, or the man-

ner in which it is told. 47

The year that Maud, and Other Poems was published,

1855, saw a ^ so ^ ie publication of Longfellow's Hiawatha

and Whitman's Leaves of Grass. To these two American

volumes, Tennyson's was frequently compared, usually to

its disadvantage. In one of his anonymous reviews of his

own works, Walt Whitman reviewed the Leaves of Grass

and Maud, and Other Poems side by side, contrasting them

to the disparagement of the latter. Tennyson, he said, was

the poet of aristocracy, while Whitman was the poet of de-

mocracy. The one harmonized with and represented Eng-

lish life: Tennyson's poems were "a natural growth" of the

"present phases of high life in Great Britain." But the other

represented America, as Tennyson could not, for "what

very properly fits a subject of the British crown may fit very

ill an American freeman":

He [Tennyson] is the bard of ennui and of the aristocracy and

their combination into love. This love is the old stock love of

playwrights and romancers, Shakspeare the same as the rest. It

is possessed of the same unnatural and shocking passion for some

girl or woman, that wrenches it from its manhood, emasculated

and impotent, without strength to hold the rest of the objects

and goods of life in their proper positions. It seeks nature for

sickly uses. It goes screaming and weeping after the facts of the


universe, in their calm beauty and equanimity, to note the oc-

currence of itself, and to sound the news, in connection with the

charms of the neck, hair, or complexion of a particular female.

"Poetry, to Tennyson," said Whitman, "is a gentleman of

the first degree, boating, fishing and shooting genteelly

through nature, admiring the ladies, and talking to them

in company with that elaborate, half-choked deference that

is to be made up by the terrible license of men among them-

selves." Tennyson's "effusions" were filled "from top to

toe" with the "spirit of the burnished society of upper class

England." Whitman never got around to specific mention

of "Maud" or any other poem in the volume, but he closed

his estimate of Tennyson with the significant admission,

"It remains to be distinctly admitted that this man is a real

poet, notwithstanding his ennui and his aristocracy." 48

One periodical reviewed Maud, and Other Poems and

Leaves of Grass together under the title, "The Assembly of

Extremes." The reviewer found in the two books, appar-

ently so "unlike, at first thought," the "most striking like-

nesses." The one was "refined in its Art . . . delicate in

its structure, and consummate in its subtlety of expres-

sion"; while the other was "rough and rude" in comparison.

But both were morbid, and both were "defiant of laws

which attempt to regulate forms, and those which should

regulate essences":

Maud is irreligious through mental disease, produced by excess

of sentimental action — "Leaves of Grass," through irregularly-

developed mental action and insufficiency of sentiment. A

calmer perception of Nature would have corrected in Tennyson

that feeling which looks upon sorrow as the only thing poetic,

and serenity and holy trust, as things to which Love has no al-

liance, while a higher seeing of Nature would have shown Walt

Whitman that all things in Nature are not alike beautiful. 49

In the comparisons of Hiawatha and Maud, and Other

Poems, more dissimilarity than similarity was pointed out.


Soon after the publication of Maud, and Other Poems,

Tennyson received an anonymous letter which he enjoyed


Sir — I used to worship you, but now I hate you. I loathe and

detest you. You beast! So you've taken to imitating Longfellow.

Yours in aversion, 50

But most critics saw no such similarity. The tendency to

disparage Tennyson in favor of Longfellow was particularly

evident in comparisons of Hiawatha and "Maud." The

Home Journal (March 8, 1856) pronounced Hiawatha far

superior to "Maud." O. Prescott Hiller of Boston contrasted

in his travel book the "feeble praise" given "Maud" and

what he termed the "universal admiration" accorded Hi-

awatha, and concluded that Longfellow was the greater

poet. 51 And Charles Eliot Norton wrote that "no two poems

could be more in contrast" than these. Portions of "Maud,"

Norton thought, were "of most exquisite and touching

beauty," but "as a whole," it was a "sad, morbid, painful

picture of a man's mind." 52

Graham's Magazine drew a contrast of a different sort.

"Maud," it said, was much the superior poem. While Long-

fellow was dabbling with "the sequestered romance of sav-

age life," Tennyson was dealing with "the great war and

ways of the world, with all its hypocrisies, rogueries and

falsehoods." An "earnest and bitter piece of mundane phi-

losophy," "Maud" exemplified the fact that British poets

wrote "of passing questions and historical events with more

directness and earnestness" than did the American. "Even

Tennyson, who [had] always lived so much in a quaint re-

gion of his own, between Fairy Land and the Georgian

Era," was now coming out upon the field of action and

reality. The "emphatic war-note" in "Maud," with its ap-

peal for "war on the most deadly scale, rather than the

cheateries and rascalities of social life," was highly com-


mendable: "We are sorry it is not an American poet who

sings in that fine frenzy." 53

Americans' love for Tennyson was strikingly shown in

the attitude of his admirers who were disappointed in

"Maud." In his letter to Fields, Bayard Taylor tried hard

to conceal his disappointment: there were "delicious things

in the book"; it was "not an advance on Tennyson's former

books, neither a falling off, and perhaps we should not ask

more." 54 Stoddard had to confess that he wished Tennyson

had not written "Maud." 55 But others devised ingenious

apologies. Stedman explained, "He wrote it in a hurry, and

published it, because the English people were expecting

something of him, and no poet writes well to order." 56

Edward Everett Hale disliked the closing stanzas glorify-

ing war, but he could account for them. The greater part of

"Maud," he said, must have been written years earlier.

Then as time passed and a poem was needed, Tennyson

drew it out again, and saw in it some exquisite passages:

" 'Certainly they are worth publishing,' we imagine him

saying to himself; — and so there is hurried on a clumsy post-

script about the Russian war, and the whole is sent to

press." 57

Though not nearly so favorable, Americans' reception of

"Maud" resembled their reaction to The Princess in their

determination to accept the poem for what it was. The Edi-

tor of the Easy Chair declared, "We thought 'Maud' a lovely

poem, and did not think it necessary to state that it was

not 'Paradise Lost,' nor anything else which it was not." 58

In the face of the stupid criticisms, Tennyson, thought

Curtis, must be "feeling very much as a rose would feel if

it were wondered whether a rose could ever be a dahlia." 59

Hale rather angrily questioned the harsh critics. After de-

scribing the beautiful music and imagery of the poem, he




Have we — if we study our rights carefully, — have we any right

to ask more than this? Has any one promised us that "Maud"

shall have a beginning, middle, and end? Has any one promised

us that it should have a finished denouement?

'Tor ourselves," Hale concluded, "we are gratified with

what we have; and will not complain that we have no

more." 60

This attitude had characterized all of the American criti-

cism of Tennyson, and it was distinctly American. The

British critics never treated Tennyson thus. They had re-

fused to give The Princess such a hearing, and they refused

again with "Maud." 61 The American reception of "Maud"

seems to have been more favorable than the British. In fact,

of reviews in the most prominent American periodicals the

favorable outnumbered the unfavorable almost two to one.

The same could hardly be said of the British. 62

"Maud" is frequently referred to as the most persecuted

of Tennyson's major poems. 63 Tennyson thought of it so,

and he received many consoling messages from his friends.

Among the comforters were James T. Fields and Frederick

Goddard Tuckerman. Fields wrote his regrets for the "stu-

pid" criticisms, 64 and Tuckerman reassured Tennyson that

they would not affect his fame:

The newspapers are loud, but the poet holds it ["Maud"] to his

heart in silence. I have seen the attack in Blackwood, . . . [It is]

strange that people because they cannot appreciate or rightly

understand a subject, abuse the treatment of it, which may be

(and in this case is) wholly in keeping. . . . As for affecting your

fame however or influencing the motions of the masses by a

magazine article, a man might as well stand upon the sea-shore

in a flood-tide and attempt to put the waves back with a pitch-

fork. . . , 65

Tuckerman's description of the irresistible advance of

Tennyson's fame proved true, but for years to come, some

of Tennyson's most enthusiastic supporters omitted from

their strong approval of his work the one poem, "Maud."



Reviewers of Maud, and Other Poems gave nearly all of

their attention to the title-poem, with only brief glances at

the other poems in the volume. The "Ode on the Death of

the Duke of Wellington" and "The Charge of the Light

Brigade," however, had occasioned some discussion before

Maud, and Other Poems appeared. The original 1852 ver-

sion of the "Ode" was rather hostilely received by the Brit-

ish periodicals, 06 and the American, taking their cue from

the British, reviewed it harshly too. The American peri-

odicals usually contented themselves with reprinting the

British reviews, but in rare instances they wrote original

opinions. The Southern Literary Gazette thought that the

"Ode" was "marked by a studied plainness of language

which in some passages degenerates into prosaism — a fault

not often attributable to the author of the Princess." 67

The Boston Daily Evening Transcript (December 4, 1852)

thought the passage concerning Admiral Nelson "in an odd

style for a funeral ode." Many lines in the poem, said the

Transcript, "certainly would be called doggerel" if anyone

but Tennyson had written them: the "Ode" would not

"add much to Mr. Tennyson's poetical reputation." Nev-

ertheless, American reviewers found some things to their

liking. The Southern Literary Gazette, along with its con-

demnation, noted several "suggestive felicities of expres-

sion" worthy of Tennyson. To-Day: A Boston Literary

Journal, probably referring to the death of Zachary Taylor

on July 9, 1850, thought the "Ode" of special interest to

Americans because it was "not inappropriate to the loss

which our own nation has recently sustained." 68 And Put-

nam's Magazine came to Tennyson's defense:

. . . the almost unvarying opinion of the critics is, that it [the

"Ode"] is not equal to the occasion. But who ever wrote an oc-



casional ode or an occasional oration that took the palm? Occa-

sions are only golden moments to mediocrities. Your man of

genius must take his own time and way of doing things. Yet there

are passages in Tennyson's Ode, that relish of the butt of Ca-

nary, which is his laureate salary/


The original version of "The Charge of the Light Bri-

gade" was criticized even more severely by the British press

than that of the "Ode" had been, but Americans liked the

poem from the beginning. Several weeks before its publica-

tion, the London correspondent of the New York Daily

Tribune, having heard rumors that Tennyson was to write

some war poems in praise of English valor, feared that Ten-

nyson was not equal to the task:

England wants a poet who shall attend her in the great struggle

that she has just entered upon. But Tennyson is not the man.

His mind dwells in a region too serene. He cannot set the blood

dancing, and make the soul rush to arms. He is not a voice to be

heard above the raging of the storm. He cannot stir the wild

Beast of Passion in the blood; and he lacks the fire that shall

make it leap, like lightning, from its lair. He is a Poet of Peace,

not of War.

Then, when "The Charge of the Light Brigade" appeared,

the Tribune reprinted the "thrilling lyric" as a "splendid

refutation" of its correspondent's statement. 70

Apparently, the only significant objections raised by

Americans to the poem concerned its subject-matter, the

commemoration of a disasterous charge of the British cav-

alry in the Battle of Balaclava, October 25, 1854, in the

Crimean War. In a general condemnation of occasional

poems, William J. Grayson wrote that "even Tennyson

could make nothing of Balaklava's celebrated charge of the

six hundred"; 71 and Graham's Magazine felt that "a bloody

blunder — an insane and ghastly charge proving the dis-

graceful generalship of the British leaders" was a poor sub-

ject for poetry. 72 Frederick G. Tuckerman told Tennyson


of his objection to the line "Someone had blunder d," and

others also disliked that line. 73

The American periodicals which reprinted "The Charge

of the Light Brigade" were highly pleased with it. They

thought it a vigorous and stirring war lyric. The preface to

the poem in Peterson's Magazine is typical:

Tennyson, in the following poem, has proved that he can write

in the bold, Homeric strain, demanded by such a theme, quite

as well as in what has hitherto been considered his peculiar vein.

No similar lyric in the language surpasses this. Campbell's

"Battle of the Baltic" seems artificial beside its stern and terrible

grandeur. 74

The Boston Daily Evening Transcript printed just as high

an estimate. It would "be at a loss to pick out of Tennyson's

poems anything which stamps him more as a true poet than

the 'Charge of the Light Brigade.' " Anyone whose heart

did not "beat more bravely to this glowing strain," was not

"made of the stuff that would have ridden with the 'Noble

six hundred!' " 75

In an attempt to placate the British critics, Tennyson al-

most re-wrote the poem for its inclusion in Maud, and

Other Poems. The line, "Someone had blunder'd," was

deleted, and the poem was considerably shortened. 76 This

new version, the American periodicals considered greatly

inferior to the original. Peterson's Magazine thought the

poem had been "spoiled," and the New York Daily Times

referred to it as "completely emasculated and deprived of

all that rough vigor which palpitated in every verse on its

first appearance." 77

Except for "The Brook," the remaining poems of Maud,

and Other Poems received little more than what might be

termed perfunctory praise. "The Brook," however, gave re-

viewers genuine pleasure. Hale spoke of it as "a charming

little idyl." 78 Another, comparing it to "The Gardener's

Daughter," declared it "a triumph both of the Tennyson-


ian blank verse, which is as marked as the Miltonic, and

of the Tennysonian melody." 79 And in his disappointment

with "Maud," Stedman thought that "The Brook" re-

deemed the whole volume. 80 With its narrative blank verse

and its little rimed song, "I Come from Haunts of Coot and

Hern," "The Brook" was as characteristically Tennysonian

as anything in the volume and was, naturally, admired by

the lovers of the orthodox Tennyson. It represented better

than any other poem in the volume the kind of Tennyson-

ian poetry which was destined to give Tennyson his tre-

mendous popularity among the educated and uneducated

alike in the years just ahead.



the Idylls of the King, ushered in a new era in the reputa-

tion of Tennyson. One must not assume for a moment that

the cool reception given "Maud" marked the beginning of

a reaction against Tennyson. With the coming of the Idylls,

Tennyson's fame reached heights which it had never before

known. Bayard Taylor wrote that after the publication of

the first Idylls, it became almost "a heresy" to question

Tennyson's absolute perfection. 1 And Longfellow wrote of

the reception of the Idylls, "I believe there is no discordant

voice on this side of the water." 2

With the coming of the Idylls and the tremendous ap-

plause with which they were greeted, Tennyson's reputation

in America became more nearly parallel with that in Great

Britain than it had been in the earlier period. Criticisms

were less distinctly American. Doubtless the critics were ar-

riving at their estimates as independently as they had

earlier, but the trend toward uniformity was the natural

result of the nearer approach to the acme of acclaim.

From 1859 Tennyson began to assume more than ever

before his position as the people's poet. Previously he had

been read and admired most by the intellectuals. In Me-

moriam and "Maud" could not be called popular poems.

But such poems as the Idylls and the tremendously popular

Enoch Arden were. Ticknor and Fields sold eleven thou-

sand copies of their first edition of the Idylls within the


first month after its publication, and the editions of Enoch

Arden were too numerous and their sale too rapid for accu-

rate recording. 3 Professor A. C. Bradley wrote in his essay,

The Reaction against Tennyson, "It was the four Idylls of

the King published in 1859 that opened to him the heart of

the public and began that immense popularity which he

never saw diminished." Tennyson's rise was somewhat con-

temporaneous with the "popular culture" movement for

universal reading and universal education in America, and

one American wrote in 1892, "As a force in the popular

culture of the country Tennyson's influence has been

greater than that of any other English poet." 4

Throughout Tennyson's life, he received his greatest

praise for the lyrical qualities of his poetry. He was the skill-

ful metrist, the perfect poetic artist. Even in the midst of

their highest praise of Tennyson, critics disparaged his in-

ventive powers. He was, wrote a reviewer of Tiresias, and

Other Poems, the decorator and not the architect. 5 His man-

ner and not the matter counted for most. With the emphasis

thus placed upon the lyrics, Tennyson's early poems re-

tained their high relative position among his works, and

when Americans thought of Tennyson, the poems of 1842

were among the first to come to their minds. Stedman wrote

in 1875 of the 1842 Poems, "At the present day, were this

volume to be lost, we possibly should be deprived of a

larger specific variety of Tennyson's most admired poems

than is contained in any other of his successive ventures." 6

During the height of Tennyson's fame from 1859 to his

death in 1892, the American criticisms did not consist en-

tirely of praise. The apostate Lowell and other intellectuals

reviewed harshly the simpler and more popular poems, and

one American book of criticism in 1877 headed its chapter

on Tennyson, "An Over-rated Poet." 7 The historical

dramas received especially severe criticism. They were not

dramatic, said some critics; they lacked unity and tragic


power. Also, several reviewers professed to find in Demeter

and Other Poems (1889) and the other later volumes signs

of old age and failing genius. But these criticisms were but

slight eddies in the steady flow of Tennyson's fame, which

faltered little till after his death. Probably no poet who has

ever lived enjoyed more fame during his lifetime than did


Soon after his death, however, the reaction began. Taylor

had written in 1877, "There are, at present, signs of the

beginnings of such a reaction, and we need not be surprised

if (as in Byron's case) it should swing past the line of justice,

and end by undervaluing, for a time, many of the poet's

high and genuine qualities." 8 Taylor's prophecy has now

been fulfilled, and possibly even now Tennyson's reputa-

tion has not reached its nadir, but the sinking gained little

momentum till the close of the Victorian period. Hamilton

W. Mabie wrote in the year of Tennyson's death that Ten-

nyson then had more readers and admirers in America than

in England and that he was considered by Americans the

greatest of English poets. 9 Whether the reaction against

Tennyson began earlier in England than in America is

difficult to say, but on both sides of the Atlantic it came

when to like Tennyson was to be mid-Victorian, and to be

mid-Victorian was to be antiquated. Tennyson rose and fell

with his age.


Appendix A


SON'S POEMS, 1827-1858

In descriptions of the editions, references are given only for

those facts which are not documented in the notes to the chap-

ters. Information referred to as from the records of the Hough-

ton Mifflin Company is taken from the detailed accounts of

Ticknor's Tennyson editions prepared for me by the Houghton

Mifflin Company and included in a communication of Septem-

ber 21, 1940. The company states that the information was gath-

ered from Ticknor's "sheet stock records," "old cost book rec-

ords," and annual sales catalogues. With each edition listed is

given the name of a library which owns a copy. The Library of

Congress is always named if a copy is there.

I. Complete Poems

Poems. By Alfred Tennyson. In two volumes. Vol. I. [II.] Bos-

ton: William D. Ticknor. MDCCCXLII.

First American edition. Issued July 7, 1842. The edition con-

sisted of from 1500 to 2000 copies. In size, contents, and colla-

tion, the edition was an exact reproduction of the London edi-

tion of 1842. For the contents of the volumes, see Wise, op. cit.,

I, 80-86. The published price was $1.50. A copy is in the Harvard

College Library.

Leaf: 6% x 4% inches. Pagination: Vol. I: vii, 233 pages; Vol.

II: vii, 231 pages.

Poems. By Alfred Tennyson. In two volumes. Vol. I. [II.] Bos-

ton: William D. Ticknor and Co. MDCCCXLVI.

The poems included in this edition were the same as those of

the 1842 edition. A copy is in the Library of Congress.


Leaf: 6% x 4% inches. Pagination: Vol. I: vii, 231 pages; Vol.

II: vii, 231 pages.

Poems. By Alfred Tennyson. In two volumes. Vol. I. [II.] A New

Edition, Enlarged. Boston: William D. Ticknor and Co.


To the poems of the 1842 edition, this edition added "The

Princess," from the first London edition of 1847. A copy is in the

Princeton University Library. Many later impressions of this

edition were issued: 1849 (Duke University Library), 1851 (Bos-

ton Public Library), 1852 (University of Virginia Library), 1853

(University of Pennsylvania Library). Of three 1849 impressions

seen in the preparation of this work, one (Harvard College Li-

brary) had a portrait of Tennyson tipped in facing the title-page

of Volume I and not included in the pagination. All later im-

pressions seen contained the tipped in portrait.

Leaf: 7x4% inches. Pagination: Vol. I: vii, 264 pages; Vol.

II: vii, 278 pages.

Poems. By Alfred Tennyson. In two volumes. Vol. I. [II.] A New

Edition. Boston: Ticknor, Reed, and Fields. MDCCCLIV.

The contents of this edition differed from the contents of the

1848 edition only in variations in the text of "The Princess."

The version of "The Princess" included in this edition was that

of the fourth London edition. Previously, all American print-

ings of "The Princess" had been from the first London edition.

For variations between the two London editions, see Wise, op.

cit., I, 99-103. This was the first American edition to include the

famous intercalary songs of "The Princess." Volume I contained

a tipped in portrait of Tennyson opposite the title-page. A

copy is in the Harvard College Library.

Leaf: 6% x 4% inches. Pagination: Vol. I: vii, 264 pages; Vol.

II: vii, 293 pages.

Poems. By Alfred Tennyson. In two volumes. Vol. I. [II.] A New

Edition. Boston: Ticknor and Fields. MDCCCLIV.

This edition added eight poems to the contents of the pre-

vious edition of the same year. Tennyson's dedication, "To the

Queen," was prefaced to Volume I, and "The Sea-Fairies," "The

Deserted House," "Edwin Morris; or, The Lake," "To ,

After Reading a Life and Letters," "To E. L., on His Travels in

Greece," "Come Not, When I Am Dead," and "The Eagle" were

inserted at the end of the first volume. A copy is in the Library


of Congress. A later impression of this edition was issued with

imprint 1855 (Harvard College Library). Volume I contained a

portrait of Tennyson opposite the title-page.

Leaf: 7 x 4% inches. Pagination: Vol. I: x, 280 pages; Vol. II:

vii, 293 pages.

The Poetical Works of Alfred Tennyson, Poet Laureate.

Complete in One Volume. Boston: Ticknor and Fields.


This was the first of Ticknor and Fields's famous "Blue and

Gold" pocket editions of the poets. In addition to the poems of

the second 1854 edition, this edition contained "In Memoriam"

and all of the poems of Maud, and Other Poems (see below). The

version of "Maud" was that of the first London edition. The

edition contained a portrait of Tennyson. The records of the

Houghton Mifflin Company indicate that five impressions of

this edition totaling 9200 copies were issued in 1856. Some im-

pressions contained George S. Hillard's verses, "On Receiving a

Copy of Tennyson's Poems." The published price was seventy-

five cents. A copy is in the Harvard College Library.

Leaf: 5% x 3% inches. Pagination: vii, 518 pages. The blue

binding and gold edges of the volume gave the edition its name.

Poems. By Alfred Tennyson, Poet Laureate. In two volumes.

Vol. I. [II.] A New Edition. Boston: Ticknor and Fields.


This was advertised as the "Cabinet" edition. The poems in-

cluded were the same as those of the first "Blue and Gold" edi-

tion. Printed in the front of Volume I was Tennyson's letter of

March 18, 1856, to Ticknor and Fields expressing his wish that

with them alone should rest the right of publishing his poems in

America. Volume I contained opposite its title-page a portrait

of Tennyson. A copy is in the Boston Public Library. A later

impression of this edition was issued with the imprint 1857 (Li-

brary of Congress).

Leaf: 7^ x 4% inches. Pagination: Vol. I: vii, 494 pages; Vol.

II: vii, 448 pages.

The Poetical Works of Alfred Tennyson, Poet Laureate.

Complete in One Volume. Boston: Ticknor and Fields.


This was the second "Blue and Gold" pocket edition of Ten-

nyson's poems. It contained a portrait of Tennyson and George


S. Hillard's poem, "On Receiving a copy of Tennyson's Poems."

This edition differed from the first "Blue and Gold" edition

only in variations in the texts of "The Princess" and "Maud."

"The Princess" was reprinted from the fifth London edition,

which represents the final text of the poem, and "Maud" was

reprinted from the third London edition. For variations be-

tween these and former editions, see Wise, op. cit., I, 102-03,

131-32. A copy is in the Harvard College Library. The records

of the Houghton Mifflin Company list many impressions issued

in 1857, ^58, 1859, and i860. A copy bearing the imprint 1858

is in the University of Virginia Library.

Leaf: 5% x 3% inches. Pagination: vii, 524 pages.

II. Individual Works

The Princess; a Medley. By Alfred Tennyson. Boston: Wil-

liam D. Ticknor and Co. MDCCCXLVIII.

First American Edition. Issued February 9, 1848. It was a re-

print of the first London edition of The Princess (1847). The

American edition differed slightly in size and pagination from

the English. The published price was fifty cents. A copy is in the

Library of Congress. References to later 1848 impressions of this

edition have been seen.

Leaf: 7 x 4% inches. Pagination: 168 pages.

The Princess; a Medley. By Alfred Tennyson, Poet Laureate.

A New Edition. Boston: Ticknor and Fields. MDCCCLV.

This edition was a reprint of the fourth London edition. For

variations between the fourth and former editions, see Wise, op.

cit. , I, 102. A copy is in the Boston Public Library.

Leaf: 7 x 4% inches. Pagination: 151 pages.

In Memoriam. Boston: Ticknor, Reed, and Fields. MDCCCL.

First American edition. Issued July 27, 1850. It was a reprint

of the first London edition of 1850. The American edition dif-

fered slightly in size and pagination from the English. The fact

that some copies bearing the imprint 1850 were printed by Met-

calf & Co. of Cambridge, while others were printed by Hobart &

Robbins of Boston, indicates that there were at least two sep-

arate impressions in 1850. The published price was seventy-five

cents. Two copies are in the Library of Congress, one by each

printer. Many later impressions of this edition were issued: 1851

(University of Pennyslvania Library), 1852 (Harvard College


Library), 1854 (Harvard College Library), 1855 (Yale University

Library), and 1856 (Harvard College Library).

Leaf: 7% X4% inches. Pagination: 216 pages.

Maud, and Other Poems. By Alfred Tennyson, D. C. L., Poet

Laureate. Boston: Ticknor and Fields: MDCCCLV.

First American edition. Issued August 18, 1855. The first im-

pression consisted of 3000 copies. It was a reprint of the first

London edition of 1855. The American edition differed slightly

in size and pagination from the English. The volume contained

eight poems: "Maud," "The Brook; an Idyl," "The Letters,"

"Ode on the Death of the Duke of Wellington," "The Daisy,"

"To the Rev. F. D. Maurice," "Will," and "The Charge of the

Light Brigade." The published price was fifty cents. A copy is

in the Library of Congress. The records of the Houghton Mifflin

Company list two later impressions of the edition in 1855, the

first of 2000 copies and the second of 2400 copies, and one im-

pression of 1000 copies in 1856. A copy bearing the imprint 1856

is in the Library of Congress.

Leaf: 7 x 4% inches. Pagination: 168 pages.

III. Sheet Music *

Ask Me No More

Ask Me No More. Tennyson's celebrated song of the Co-

quette. Music by Harrison Millard. Boston. Published by Oliver

Ditson, Washington St. [Four agents.] Copyright 1856 [depos-

ited June 17]. Plate number: 8423. 5 pages, 13% x 10 inches.

"To Miss Georgia E. Wood, N. York"

A copy is in the Library of Congress.

The Beggar Maid

The Beggar Maid. Tennyson. Music by Thompson Lennig.

Boston. Oliver Ditson. Without plate number. 5 pages (?),

14 x 10 inches.

No complete copy of this piece has been found. One sheet,

pages 3 and 4, is in the Library of Congress. This is probably

* The dates doubtfully assigned to the undated sheets for which no

copyright records have been found have been arrived at by use of the plate

numbers, the addresses of the publisher, and the names and addresses of

his agents. The assigning of these dates has been largely the work of Messrs.

Herbert S. Smith and Everett B. Tewksbury of the Music Department of

the Boston Public Library, whose assistance I gratefully acknowledge.


one of the earliest settings for Tennyson's poems published in

America. No copyright record has been found.

Break, Break, Break

Florence. A Collection of [12] Songs. The Poetry by Longfel-

low, Tennyson and Others. Music by Ffrancis]. Boott. . . . [No.

8] O Well for the Fisherman's Boy, or Break, Break. Boston.

Published by Oliver Ditson 8c Co., Washington St. [Four

agents.] Copyright 1857 [deposited June 4]. Plate number:

14144. 5 pages, 14 x 10% inches.

A copy is in the Library of Congress.

Song of the Brook

The Brook. Words by Tennyson. Music by Dolores [Ellen

Dickson]. Boston. Published by Oliver Ditson 8c Co., 277 Wash-

ington St. [Five agents.] [1857-1860 (?)] Without plate number.

5 pages, 14 x 10% inches.

A copy is in the collection of Mr. J. Francis Driscoll of Brook-

line, Massachusetts.

Come into the Garden, Maud

Come into the Garden, Maud. Serenade from Tennyson's

Maud. Set to Music by J. C. D. Parker. Boston. Published by

Oliver Ditson & Co., Washington St. [Four agents.] Copyright

1855 [deposited Nov. 17]. Plate number: 7879. 7 pages, 14 x 10%


A copy is in the Harvard College Library.

Tennyson's Come into the Garden Maud for mezzo-soprano

voice with Piano accompaniment composed by Otto Dresel.

Boston, Russel & Fuller, 291 Washington St. Copyright 1858.

Plate number: 3214. 5 pages, 14 x 10% inches.

"To Miss S. G. Gay"

Some copies bear the imprint: Boston, Russell 8c Tolman, 201

Washington St.

Two copies, one with each imprint, are in the collection of

Mr. J. Francis Driscoll.

Come into the Garden, Maud. Serenade from Tennyson's

Maud. Set to Music ... by John Blockley. Boston. Published

by Oliver Ditson 8c Co., 277 Washington St. [Four agents.]

[1858 (?)] Plate number: 18923. 7 pages, 14 x 10% inches.

A copy is in the collection of Mr. J. Francis Driscoll.


A Farewell

Flow Down, Cold Rivulet. A Farewell, written by Alfred Ten-

nyson. Music by William R. Dempster. Boston. Published by

Oliver Ditson, 115 Washington St. [Four agents.] Copyright

1852 [deposited Oct. 7]. Plate number: 5073. 5 pages, 14 x 10%


A copy is in the Library of Congress.

Go Not, Happy Day

Go Not Happy Day! The words from Alfred Tennyson's New

Poem of Maud. The Music by Alice Foster. Boston. E. H. Wade,

197 Washington St. [1855-1856 (?)] Without plate number. 7

pages, 14 x 10% inches.

A copy is in the Harvard College Library.

It Is the Miller's Daughter

Songs of the South — A collection of Songs and Duetts. Com-

posed by Chas. J. Merz. ... It Is the Miller's Daughter. Ten-

nyson. Boston. Published by Oliver Ditson Sc Co., Washington

St. [Four agents.] Copyright 1857. Pl ate number: 14073. 5 pages,

13% x 10 inches.

A copy is in the collection of Mr. J. Francis Driscoll.

The May Queen

The May Queen, Cantata in Three Parts. Poetry by Alfred

Tennyson, music composed and most cordially dedicated to his

friend Lewis Gaylord Clark Esq. of New York by William R.

Dempster. Part First. . . . Part Second. . . . Part Third. . . .

[The title-page contained brief summaries of the three parts.]

Boston. Published by Oliver Ditson, 115 Washington St. Copy-

right 1845 [P ar t First was deposited on April 9, 1845, an d Parts

Second and Third on March 2, 1846]. Without plate number.

29 pages, 14 x 10% inches.

Slight variations in the ornamented border of the title-page

show that several separate impressions were made in 1845.

Also copies have been found with the imprint 1846. The

cantata was sold as a whole, and also each part was sold sep-

arately. A copy is in the Library of Congress. A copy with the

1846 imprint is in the Harvard College Library.


The May Queen. By Alfred Tennyson. The Music by I. B.

Woodbury. Part First. . . . Part Second. . . . Part Third. . . .

[The title-page contained brief summaries of the three parts.]

New York, Firth, Pond k Co., 1 Franklin Sq. [One agent.] Copy-

right 1848 [deposited Nov. 16]. Plate number: 254. 9 pages,

12% x 10 inches.

"To the Rev. Ralph Hoyt"

A copy is in the Harvard College Library.

O Swallow, Swallow

The Dulciana. A collection of Favorite Duetts . . . The Mes-

senger Swallow. . . . Composed by John Blockley. Boston.

Published by Oliver Ditson & Co., 277 Washington St. [Five

agents.] [1855 (?)] Plate number: 8536. 7 pages, 13 x 10% inches.

A copy is in the Harvard College Library.

Ring Out, Wild Bells

Florence. A collection of [12] Songs. The Poetry by Long-

fellow, Tennyson and Others. Music by Ffrancis]. Boott . . .

[No. 7] The New Year's Bells. Boston. Published by Oliver Dit-

son & Co., Washington St. [Four agents.] Copyright 1857 [de-

posited June 4]. Plate number: 14144. 5 pages, 14 x 10% inches.

A copy is in the Library of Congress.

The Splendor Falls on Castle Walls

Bugle Song. Words by Tennyson. Music by S. D. S. Boston.

Published by Oliver Ditson, Washington St. [Four agents.]

Copyright 1857 [deposited Sept. 16]. Plate number: 8901. 5

pages, 14 x 10% inches.

A copy is in the Library of Congress.

Sweet and Low

Cradle Song. Words by Alfred Tennyson. Music by Wm.

Vincent Wallace. New York. Published by William Hall Sc Son,

239 Broadway. [Four agents.] Copyright 1851 [deposited May 1].

Without plate number. 8 pages, 13% x 10% inches.

A copy is in the Boston Public Library.

Cradle Song. "Sleep and rest, Sleep and rest, Father will come

to thee soon." By Wm. Vincent Wallace. New York. Published

by William Hall Sc Son, 239 Broadway. [Four agents.] Copy-


right 1851 [deposited July 15]. Plate number: 1086. 5 pages,

1314 x 10% inches.

"Dedicated to Madame F. Lablache"

Transposed in C for Soprano.

A copy is in the Library of Congress.

Sweet and Low. Ballad by Alfred Tennyson. Music by J[ohn].

Blockley. Boston. Published by Oliver Ditson, 115 Washington

St. [Five agents.] [1854 (?)] Plate number: 7663. 5 pages, 12% x

10 inches.

A copy is in the Harvard College Library.

The Favorite Ballads of Wm. Vincent Wallace arranged for

the Spanish Guitar. . . . No. 9. Cradle Song. Arranged by

Charlie C. Converse. Composed by W. V. Wallace. New York.

Published by William Hall & Son, 239 Broadway. [One agent.]

Copyright 1855 [deposited Jan. 20]. Plate number: 3141. 5

pages, 13 % x 10 % inches.

A copy is in the Library of Congress.

The New York Musical Review. Prize Songs. . . . No. 1.

Sweet and Low. [Composed by] Otto Dresel. Boston. Nathan

Richardson at the Musical Exchange, 282 Washington St. Copy-

right 1855 [deposited Nov. 16]. Without plate number. 5 pages,

14 x 10% inches.

First published in the New York Musical Review and Gazette,

VI > 392^93 ( Nov - l l> l8 55)-

A copy is in the Harvard College Library.

Tears, Idle Tears

Tears Gentle Tears for the Days that Are No More. Words

from Tenneyson's [sic] Poem "The Princess." Music by I. B.

Woodbury. New York. Published by William Hall 8c Son,

239 Broadway. Copyright 1848 [deposited Dec. 9]. Plate num-

ber: 263. 5 pages, 13% x 10 % inches.

"Inscribed to Mrs. Jamieson of Hartford Ct."

A copy is in the Harvard College Library.

Tears, Idle Tears. Poems set to Music. Cavatina. . . . Words

by Tennyson. Music by P. O. Bassvecchi. Charleston, South

Carolina, Geo. F. Cole. Imprint 1856. Without plate number.

11 pages, 14% x 10% inches.

Apparently, Geo. F. Cole did not copyright the piece. The in-


complete and only existing records of South Carolina copy-

rights for 1856 do not list it. The piece was copyrighted and

republished by Firth, Pond & Co. of New York in 1857 [de-

posited Aug. 7]. The New York records of copyright describe

it as a "Cavatina, sung with great applause by a distinguished

Lady Amateur, at the Grand Concert of the Calhoun Monu-

ment Association on May 4th, 1856. Composed for and dedi-

cated to Miss S. F. Elmore of S. C. — By P. O. Bassvecchi." A

copy (Geo. F. Cole, 1856) is in the Boston Public Library.

The Days that Are No More. Song. . . . The Poetry by Ten-

nyson. The Music by Jacques Blumenthal. Boston. Published by

Oliver Ditson & Co., 451 Washington St. [Three agents.]

[i857(?)] Pl ate number: 29128. 7 pages, 12 x 10% inches.

A copy is in the Harvard College Library.

Appendix B



BOOKS, 1827-1858

The following list is compiled almost entirely from the large

collections of literary annuals and gift-books in the Library of

Congress, the American Antiquarian Society, and the Harvard

College Library. With each item is listed a library which owns a

copy of the annual. The Library of Congress is always given if

the annual is there. When an item is an extract from a poem, the

line references are to the present editions of the poem rather

than to the rare earlier versions. In no case is there significant

textual variation. The items are arranged chronologically by

the dates of the annuals. An effort has been made to determine

the year for which each annual was issued. When a date was in-

cluded in the title of the annual, that date is given. When both

copyright and imprint dates are known and the former is a year

earlier than the latter, the imprint date is given as the year for

which the annual was issued. When such a date cannot be deter-

mined, the copyright date (marked cop.) is given. The twelve

items marked by asterisks, all of which I later saw, were con-

tributed by Professor Bradford A. Booth of the University of

California at Los Angeles from his unpublished index of Amer-

ican annuals.

* "A Fragment" ["Where is the Giant of the Sun, which stood"],

Friendship's Offering for 1842 (Boston: E. Littlefield), pp.

218-19. Library of Congress.

* "No More," Friendship's Offering for 1842, p. 307. Library of



"The Miller's Daughter," [lines 215-46: "Look thro' mine eyes

with thine. . . ."], The Album of Love for 1846, p. 65. Amer-

ican Antiquarian Society.

"Sonnet" ["But were I loved as I desire to be"], The Album of

Love for 1846, p. 89. American Antiquarian Society.

"To J. S.," The Album of Love for 1846 (Boston: Elias Howe),

p. 56. American Antiquarian Society.

* "Love Thou Thy Land, with Love Far-brought," Friendship's

Gift for 1848 (Boston: John P. Hill), pp. 210-13. The stanzas

were given the title "Freedom." Library of Congress.

The Princess [Part VII, 11. 243-71: "The woman's cause is

man's; they rise or sink. . . ."], The Marriage Offering for

1848 (Boston: William Crosby and H. P. Nichols), p. 200.

The lines were given the title "Woman." American Antiquar-

ian Society.

"Love Thou Thy Land, with Love Far-brought," The Lady's

Gift for 1849 (Nashua, N. H.: Charles T. Gill), pp. 210-13.

The stanzas were given the title "Freedom." American Anti-

quarian Society.

* "Lilian," The Present for 1850 (Manchester, N. H.: Robert

Moore), pp. 150-51. Library of Congress.

"The Miller's Daughter" [lines 215-46: "Look thro' mine eyes

with thine. . . ."], The Album of Love for 1850 (New York:

Leavitt & Company), p. 65. This annual is an exact reprint of

the Boston Album of Love for 1846. American Antiquarian


"Sonnet" ["But were I loved as I desire to be"], The Album of

Love for 1850, p. 89. American Antiquarian Society.

"To J. S.," The Album of Love for 1850, p. 56. American Anti-

quarian Society.

In Memoriam [Section V, 11. 1-12: "I sometimes hold it half a

sin. . . ."], Memory and Hope for 1851 (Boston: Ticknor,

Reed & Fields), p. 244. Boston Athenaeum.

* "The Poet's Song," The Forget-Me-Not for 1851 (New York:

Cornish, Lamport & Co.), p. 203. American Antiquarian So-


The Princess [Part VII, 11. 243-71: "The woman's cause is

man's; they rise or sink. . . ."], The Ladies' Wreath for 1851

(New York: J. M. Fletcher & Co.), p. 249. The lines were given

the title "The Sphere of Woman." Library of Congress.

* "Break, Break, Break," The Woodbine (Philadelphia: Lind-


say & Blakiston, cop. 1851), p. 201. The stanzas were given the

title "Remembrance." Library of Congress.

* "Come Not, When I Am Dead," Gems of Beauty for 1852

(Boston: Phillips, Sampson Sc Co.), p. 79. American Antiquar-

ian Society.

* "Come Not, When I Am Dead," The Keepsake for 1852 (New

York: John C. Riker), p. 121. Harvard College Library.

* In Memoriam [Section XCIV, 11. 1-16: "How pure at heart

and sound in head. . . ."], The Talisman, An Offering of

Friendship for 1852 (Philadelphia: Hogan Sc Thompson), p.

60. Library of Congress.

"Love and Death," The Gift of Affection for 1852 (New York:

Leavitt & Company), p. 91. American Antiquarian Society.

"Mariana," The Gift of Affection for 1852, p. 91. American

Antiquarian Society.

"O Darling Room," The Irving Offering for 1852 (New York:

Leavitt Sc Company), p. 154. Library of Congress.

"Tennyson's Lockesley [sic] Hall," [Anonymous critical essay],

The Kossuth Offering and Family Souvenir for 1852 (New

York: Mark H. Newman 8c Co.), pp. 38-41. Library of Con-


* "Come Not, When I Am Dead," The Gift Book of Gems for

1853 (Boston: Phillips, Sampson & Co.), p. 79. Library of


"Love and Death," Poetry of the Affections for 1853 (New York:

Leavitt & Allen), p. 72. American Antiquarian Society.

"Mariana," Poetry of the Affections for 1853, p. 91. American

Antiquarian Society.

"The Poet's Mind," The Ladies' Diadem: A Token of Friend-

ship for 1853 (New York: Bunce and Brothers), p. 195. Li-

brary of Congress.

"The Sleeping Beauty," The Ladies' Diadem: A Token of

Friendship for 1853, p. 260. Library of Congress.

"Circumstance," The Young Lady's Cabinet of Gems for 1854

(Boston: Kelley Sc Brother), p. 129. American Antiquarian


"The Gardener's Daughter" [lines 33-47: "Not wholly in the

busy world, nor quite . . ."], The Young Lady's Cabinet of

Gems for 1854, p. 136. The stanzas were given the title "The

Garden." American Antiquarian Society.

"The Gardener's Daughter" [lines 209-20: "There sat we down


upon a garden mound . . ."], The Young Lady's Cabinet of

Gems for 1854, p. 136. The stanzas were given the title "The

Trio." American Antiquarian Society.

* "Mariana," The Hyacinth for 1854 (Philadelphia: Henry F.

Anners), p. 147. Columbia University Library.

The Princess [Part IV, 11. 21-40: "Tears, idle tears . . ."],

Heart-Songs: A Book for the Gift-Season for 1856 (Boston:

Crosby, Nichols, and Co.), pp. 90-91. Library of Congress.

* "Recollections of the Arabian Nights," The Oriental Annual

(New York: Leavitt & Allen, [cop. 1857]), PP- 7°~75- Library

of Congress.

Appendix C



NEWSPAPERS, 1827-1858

Except in rare cases, only reviews or articles devoted entirely

to Tennyson are included in this index. The few listed reviews

and articles not concerned primarily with Tennyson contain

especially significant Tennyson criticism. No attempt is made

here to record every reference to Tennyson. The complete files

of some two hundred magazines, including all of any literary

significance, have been searched in the preparation of this index.

Also, numbers of newspapers have been checked, but only two,

the Boston Daily Evening Transcript and the New York Daily

Tribune, have been searched for the entire period. References

for the assignment of authorship for anonymous reviews are

given only when the assignments have not been explained in

notes to the chapters. In order that some idea may be had of

the variation in the number of Tennyson reviews from year

to year, the reviews are grouped chronologically by years and

arranged chronologically within each year.


Museum, of Foreign Literature and Science, XXI, 128-38 (Au-

gust). Review of Poems, Chiefly Lyrical. From Blackwood's

Edinburgh Magazine [XXXI, 721-41 (May, 1832)]. [Christo-

pher North.]


Select Journal of Foreign Periodical Literature, II, 106-21

(July). Review of Poems (1833). From London Quarterly Re-

view [XLIX, 81-96 (April, 1833)]. [John Wilson Croker.]



Museum of Foreign Literature and Science, XXIV, 257-58

(March). "Alfred Tennyson" [Brief article]. From London

Athenaeum [No. 316, p. 772 (Nov. 16, 1833)].


Western Messenger, II, 323-25 (December). Review of Poems,

Chiefly Lyrical. [James Freeman Clarke.]


Every Body's Album, II, 232 (March). Brief notice of Poems,

Chiefly Lyrical and Poems (1833).


Christian Examiner, XXIII, 305-27 (January). Review of

Poems, Chiefly Lyrical and Poems (1833). J. S. D. [John Sul-

livan Dwight.]


Burton's Gentleman's Magazine, VI, 100-03 (February). Re-

view of Longfellow's Voices of the Night [Poe's accusation of

Longfellow as a plagiarist of Tennyson]. Edgar A. Poe.


Dial, II, 135 (July). "Tennyson's Poems." [Margaret Fuller.]

News-Gong, A Literary Intelligencer, I (December.) Comment

upon Tennyson's poems under "English Literary Intelli-

gence." Evert A. Duyckinck. Not seen in the preparation of

this work; no copy is known to exist.


Arcturus, III, 235-38 (February). "The Poems of Tennyson."

Evert A. Duyckinck.

Brother Jonathan, II, 213 (June 18). Brief notice of Poems


Boston Daily Evening Transcript, July 7. Brief notice of Poems

(i8 42 ).

New York Evening Post for the Country, July 8. Review of

Poems (1842).


New York Daily Tribune, July 12. Brief notice of Poems (1842).

From New York Evening Post [July 8].

Boston Daily Courier, July 12. Review of Poems (1842).

Boston Morning Post, July 12. Review of Poems (1842).

New York Evening Post for the Country, July 12. "Poems by

Alfred Tennyson."

Boston Daily Times, July 14. Review of Poems (1842).

New World, V, 48 (July 16). Review of Poems (1842).

New York Weekly Tribune, July 16. Brief notice of Poems

(1842). From New York Evening Post [July 8].

Brother Jonathan, II, 325 (July 16). Review of Poems (1842).

New World, V, 63 (July 23). Review of Poems (1842).

Democratic Review, XI, 215 (August). Review of Poems (1842).

Knickerbocker, XX, 208 (August). Review of Poems (1842) in

"Editor's Table."

Boston Daily Evening Transcript, August 15. Review of Poems

(i8 42 ).

Graham's Magazine, XXI, 152-53 (September). Review of

Poems (1842). [Rufus W. Griswold.]

Orion, I, 395 (September). Brief notice of Poems (1842).

Southern Literary Messenger, VIII, 612 (September). Review of

Poems (1842).

Boston Miscellany of Literature and Fashion, II, 140 (Septem-

ber). Review of Poems (1842).

Dial, III, 273-76 (October). "A Review of the Poems of Alfred

Tennyson." [Margaret Fuller.]

Lady's World of Fashion, II, 1 14-17 (October). Review of Poems

(1842). C.

Boston Daily Advertiser, October 10. Brief notice of Poems

(1842). From New York Evening Post [July 8].

Christian Examiner, XXXIII, 237-44 (November). Review of

Poems (1842). C. C. F. [Cornelius C. Felton.]

Knickerbocker, XX, 582 (December). Brief notice of Poems

(1842) in "Editor's Table" [Largely excerpts from Christian

Examiner, XXXIII, 237-44 (November)].


Philadelphia Saturday Museum (January 28). Review of Rufus

W. Griswold's The Poets and Poetry of America. [Edgar Allan

Poe(?).] Used in Poe's Works, XI, 220-43; no copy of Museum



Dial, III, 517-18 (April). "Europe and European Books."

[Ralph Waldo Emerson.]

New York Daily Tribune, April 17. "Wordsworth and Tenny-

son." From Dial [III, 517-18 (April)]. R. W. Emerson.

Albion, 4th Ser., II, 242 (May 20). Review of Poems (1842). From

Edinburgh Review [LXXVII, 373-91 (April, 1843)]. [James



Democratic Review, XIV, 62-77 (January). "Tennyson's

Poems." [Fanny Kemble Butler.] See Bobbe, op. cit., p. 188.

Knickerbocker, XXIII, 291-93 (March). Comment upon "The

May Queen" in "Editor's Table."

Southern Literary Messenger, X, 240-46 (April). Review of

Poems (1842). [Henry Charles Lea.]

Democratic Review, XV, 580 (December). "Marginalia." Edgar

A. Poe.

Christian Parlor Magazine, I, 231-33 (December). "Tennyson's



New Englander, III, 57-66 (January). Review of Poems (1842).

[Luzerne Ray.]

Broadway Journal, I, 195-96 (March 29). Comment upon Long-

fellow's plagiarizing Tennyson in "Critical Notices." [Edgar

Allan Poe.]

, I, 348 (May 31). "Literary Gossip."

Knickerbocker, XXV, 487-88 (June). Comment upon "My

Early Love."

, XXV, 534-40. (June). Review of Poems (1842). C. A. B.

[Charles Astor Bristed.]

American Whig Review, II, 45-48 (July). Review of Rufus W.

Griswold's The Poets and Poetry of England in the Nine-

teenth Century. [Edwin P. Whipple.]

Broadway Journal, II, 26 (July 19). "Alfred Tennyson." [Edgar

Allan Poe.]

Columbian Lady's and Gentleman's Magazine, IV, 91-93 (Au-

gust). "Thoughts on the Poets — Tennyson." Henry T. Tuck-


Godey's Lady's Book, XXXI, 120-23 (September). "Marginal

Notes — No. II." Edgar A. Poe.


Knickerbocker, XXVI, 288 (September). Comment upon "My

Early Love" in "Editor's Table."

Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Literature, Science and Art, VI,

205-17 (October). Review of Poems (1842). From British

Quarterly Review [II, 46-71 (August, 1845)].

Broadway Journal, II, 322 (November 29). Brief notice of Poems

(Ticknor's 2nd edition). [Edgar Allan Poe.]


Christian Parlor Magazine, III, 29 (May). "Tennyson's Poetry."

Albion, 4th Ser., V, 325 (July 11). "Past and Present Condition

of British Poetry." From Eraser's Magazine [XXXIII, 708-18

(June, 1846)].

Littel's Living Age, X, 164-80 (July 25). Ibid.

Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Literature, Science and Art, VIII,

499-508 (August). Ibid.

New York Illustrated Magazine of Literature and Art, II, 241-

44 (September). "Tennyson." H. H. Clements.


Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Literature, Science and Art,

XI, 144 (May). "Poetry of Tennyson." [Thomas Noon Tal-

fourd(?).] The National Magazine (I, 434, Nov., 1852) bor-

rowed the same article and headed it "Scraps from Sergeant


, XI, 161-68 (June). "Alfred Tennyson." From Tait's

Edinburgh Magazine, N. S., XIV, 229-34 (April, 1847).

George Gilfillan.

Albion, 4th Ser., VI, 568 (November 27). "On the Poetry and

Poets of the Age."


Boston Daily Evening Transcript, February 9. Brief notice of

The Princess.

Boston Daily Chronotype, February 10. Brief notice of The


, February 11. Review of The Princess.

Boston Daily Atlas, February 11. Review of The Princess.

Boston Daily Evening Transcript, February 11. Review of The



Literary World, III, 28 (February 12). Review of The Princess.

C. B. F.

New York Daily Tribune, February 14. Review of The Princess.

Albion, 4th Ser., VII, 95-96 (February 19). Review of The Prin-


Daguerreotype, II, 80-84 (February 26). Review of The Princess.

From London Examiner [No. 2084, pp. 20-21 (Jan. 8, 1848)].

Literary World, III, 61-62 (February 26). Review of The Prin-


Massachusetts Quarterly Review, I, 256-59 (March). Review of

The Princess. [James Russell Lowell.]

Democratic Review, XXII, 287 (March). Brief notice of The


Holden's Dollar Magazine, I, 185 (March). Review of The Prin-


Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Literature, Science and Art, XIII,

289-95 (March). "Alfred Tennyson." From Hogg's Weekly

Instructor [VI, 281-84 (Dec. 25, 1847)].

Albion, 4th Ser., VII, 113 (March 4). Review of The Princess.

Excerpts from London Athenaeum [No. 1053, pp. 6-8 (Jan. 1,

1848)]. [J. Westland Marston.] See Marchand, op. cit., p. 277.

Littell's Living Age, XVI, 441-45 (March 4). Review of The

Princess. From London Examiner [No. 2084, pp. 20-21, Jan.

8, 1848)].

Harbinger, VI, 158 (March 18). Review of The Princess. J. S.


Peterson's Magazine, XIII, 155 (April). Review of The Princess.

Graham's Magazine, XXXII, 300 (May). Review of The Prin-


American Literary Magazine, II, 275-81 (May). Review of The


American Whig Review, VIII, 28-39 (July). "A Talk about the

Princess." Charles A. Bristed.

Boston Daily Evening Transcript, September 4. Review of

Poems (London, 1848).

Home Journal, September 23. Brief notice of The Princess.

Albion, 4th Ser., VII, 463 (September 23). Review of Poems

(Boston, 1848).

Illustrated Monthly Courier, I, 78-79 (November 1). Review of

The Princess. [Henry B. Hirst(?).j



Yale Literary Magazine, XIV, 112-21 (January). "A Frolic with

Tennyson" [Review of The Princess]. [F. M. Finch.] See Table

of Contents of Vol. XIV.

New Englander, VII, 193-215 (May). Review of The Princess.

[James Hadley.]

Southern Literary Messenger, XV, 292-96 (May). "Marginalia."

Edgar A. Poe.

Graham's Magazine, XXXIV, 363-64 (June). "Fifty Sugges-

tions." Edgar A. Poe.

Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Literature, Science and Art, XVII,

169-82 (June). Review of The Princess and Poems (London,

1848). From Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine [LXV, 453-

67 (April, 1849)].


Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Literature, Science and Art, XIX,

66-90 (January). "Tennyson, and the Schools of Poetry."

From Edinburgh Review [XC, 388-433 (Oct., 1849)]. [Aubrey

de Vere.] See Tennyson's Memoir, I, 256.

Christian Parlor Magazine, VI, 145-48 (March). "Alfred Tenny-

son." .

Literary World, VI, 622 (June 22). Brief notice of In Memoriam.

International Weekly Miscellany , I, 34 (July 8). Review of In

Memoriam. Largely from London Spectator [XXIII, 546

(June 8, 1850)].

Literary World, VII, 30-31 (July 13). Review of In Memoriam.

Littell's Living Age, XXVI, 167-70 (July 27). Review of In

Memoriam. From London Examiner [No. 2188, pp. 356-57

(June 8, 1850)].

, XXVI, 170-71 (July 27). Review of In Memoriam. From

London Spectator [XXIII, 546 (June 8, 1850)].

American Whig Review, XII, 176-81 (August). "A Few Words

about Tennyson." P.

Macon Georgia Citizen, August 2. "Valley of Diamonds." Dr.

T [nomas]. Hfolley]. Chivers.

Christian Register, XXIX, 122 (August 3). Review of In Me-


Albion, 4th Ser., IX, 381 (August 10). Review of In Memoriam.


Boston Weekly Museum, III, 69 (August 10). Review of In Me-


Home Journal, August 10. Review of In Memoriam.

New York Daily Tribune, August 21. Review of In Memoriam.

Home Journal, August 31. "The Poetic Principle." Edgar A.


Graham's Magazine, XXXVII, 198-99 (September). Review of

In Memoriam.

Christian Examiner, XLIX, 289-90 (September). Review of In

Memoriam. [C. C. Smith.]

Democratic Review, XXVII, 204-07 (September). Review of In

Memoriam. S. E. B.

Harper's Monthly Magazine, I, 570 (September). Brief notice of

In Memoriam.

Peterson's Magazine, XVIII, 134 (September). Brief notice of In


Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Literature, Science and Art, XXI,

144 (September). Review of In Memoriam. Excerpts from

Westminster Review [LIII, 572-73 (July, 1850)].

Savannah (Georgia) Morning News, September 4. Brief notice

of In Memoriam.

Holdens Dollar Magazine, VI, 631 (October). Review of In


Sartain's Union Magazine of Literature and Art, VII, 231-39

(October). "The Poetic Principle." Edgar A. Poe.

, VII, 256 (October). Review of In Memoriam. [Prof.

John S. Hart.] See Index to Vol. VII.

Brownson's Quarterly Review, VII, 539-40 (October). Review of

In Memoriam. [Orestes A. Brownson(?).]

Nassau Literary Magazine, X, 62-65 (October). Review of In

Memoriam. B.

Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Literature, Science and Art, XXI,

209-18 (October). Review of In Memoriam. From London

Prospective Review [VI, 306-31 (August, 1850)].

New Englander, VIII, 598-615 (November). Review of In Me-

moriam. [Increase N. Tarbox.]

Southern Literary Messenger, XVI, 686-91 (November). Review

of In Memoriam. E. C. [John Esten Cooke(?).]

Southern Quarterly Review, XVIII, 535-36 (November). Re-

view of In Memoriam.

Literary World, VII, 458 (December). "Music in Prose and


Poetry. With a New Poem by Tennyson" [Comment upon

"The Bugle Song"]. From Fraser's Magazine [XLI, 644-45

(June, 1850)].


Democratic Review, XXVIII, 49-54 (January). "Shelley and

Tennyson." B.

Christian Review, XVI, 36-50 (January). Review of In Me-

moriam and Poems (Boston, 1849). [George P. Fisher.]

Christian Parlor Magazine, VII 7 (January). Review of In Me-


New York Recorder, VI, 181 (February 12). "Infidelity in Eng-

land" [Third in a series of articles on the subject, this article

dealing primarily with Tennyson]. C. B. W.

Literary World, VIII, 195-96 (March 8). An outline for the

study of In Memoriam. H. W. P.

Boston Daily Evening Transcript, March 11. "Religious Tend-

encies of Modern English Literature." From New York Re-

corder [VI, 181 (Feb. 12)].

Southern Literary Messenger, XVII, 252 (April). Comment

upon Tennyson's sonnets in "Editor's Table." [John R.

Thompson.] See Jackson, op. cit., p. 108.

International Magazine, III, 182-83 (May). "Has There Been a

Great Poet in the Nineteenth Century?" Largely from Eclec-

tic Review [5th Ser., I, 408-10 (April, 1851)].

North American Miscellany and Dollar Magazine, II, 126-31

(May 17). "Alfred Tennyson and His Poems." From Eliza

Cook's Journal [IV, 353-55 (April 5, 1851)].

American Whig Review, XIII, 534-44 (June). "Death- Verses: A

Stroll through the Valley of the Shadow of Death with Tenny-

son. . . ." [Review of In Memoriam]. J. S.


Literary World, X, 11-12, 48-49 (January 3 and 17). "The

Poetry of Sorrow" [Review of In Memoriam]. From London

Times [Nov. 28, 1851].

Albion, 4th Ser., XI, 51-52 (January 31). "The Poetry of Sor-

row." From London Times [Nov. 28, 1851].

Yale Literary Magazine, XVIII, 133 (February). "The Mission

of Modern Poetry." T.

Albion, 4th Ser., XI, 61-62 (February 7). "The Times and the


Poets." From Tait's Edinburgh Magazine [N. S., XIX, 18-21

(Jan., 1852)].

Home Journal, February 14. "Mind and Money-Making" [Ex-

cerpts from and comment upon "The Poetry of Sorrow," Lon-

don Times, Nov. 28, 1851].

, February 28. Review of In Memoriam. Signed "New


Boston Weekly Museum, IV, 303 (February 28). Review of In

Memoriam. [Largely from Home Journal, February 14.]

, IV, 315 (March 13). Review of In Memoriam. From

Home Journal, Feb. 28, 1852.

Literary World, X, 204-206 (March 20). "The Times and Ten-

nyson." From Tait's Edinburgh Magazine [N. S., XIX, 18-21

(Jan., 1852)].

American Whig Review, XV, 520-23 (June). "Recollections of

Poets Laureate — Tennyson."

Methodist Quarterly Review, XXXIV, 358-60 (July). "Tenny-

son's Credence in the Future."

National Magazine, I, 434 (November). "Poetry of Tennyson."

Under general heading "Scraps from Sergeant [Thomas

Noon] Talfourd." Same article, unsigned, appeared in Eclec-

tic Magazine of Foreign Literature, Science and Art, XI, 144

(May, 1847).

To-Day: A Boston Literary Journal, II, 365-66 (November 27).

Review of Ode on the Death of the Duke of Wellington.

Albion, 4th Ser., XI, 585 (December 4). Review of Ode on the

Death of the Duke of Wellington. From London Times [Nov.

15, 1852].

Boston Daily Evening Transcript, December 4. "Tennyson on


Literary World, XI, 374 (December 11). Review of Ode on the

Death of the Duke of Wellington. From London Times, Nov.

15, 1852.

Southern Literary Gazette, II, 284-85 (December 18). Review

of Ode on the Death of the Duke of Wellington.

, II, 296-97 (December 25). Comment upon the London

Times' s criticism of Tennyson.


Putnam's Monthly Magazine, I, 108 (January). Review of Ode

on the Death of the Duke of Wellington.


Littell's Living Age, XXXVI, 62-63 (January 8). Review of Ode

on the Death of the Duke of Wellington. From London Times

[Nov. 15, 1852].

Literary World, XII, 102-03, 169 (February 5 and 26). Com-

ment upon Poe's alleged plagiarizing of Tennyson.

Southern Literary Messenger, XIX, 184-89 (March). Comment

upon "Sweet and Low" in "Editor's Table." [John R. Thomp-

son(?).] See Jackson, op. cit., p. 117.

New York Daily Times, March 25. Review of Ode on the Death

of the Duke of Wellington.

Monthly Religious Magazine, X, 150-58 (April). Review of In

Memoriam. F.

Literary World, XII, 290-91 (April 9). Review of Ode on the

Death of the Duke of Wellington. Largely from London

Athenaeum [No. 1323, pp. 280-81 (March 5, 1853)].

Boston Daily Evening Transcript, April 20. Report of a lecture

by Oliver Wendell Holmes on Tennyson and Browning.

Littell's Living Age, XXXVII, 441-43 (May 14). Review of Ode

on the Death of the Duke of Wellington. From London

Athenaeum [No. 1323, pp. 280-81 (March 5, 1853)].

New York Daily Times, June 7. A comparison of Alexander

Smith and Tennyson under heading "Literary and Critical."

Littell's Living Age, XXXVIII, 2 (July 2). "Tennyson's Ori-

ana." Signed "A Borderer."

Home Journal, August 20. "Tennyson on Woman's Rights."

Graham's Magazine, XLIII, 336 (September). Review of Poems

(Boston, 1854).

Southern Literary Messenger, XIX, 649-58 (November). Review

of In Memoriam and Poems (Boston, 1849).


National Magazine, IV, 15-17 (January). "Winter and the New

Year" [Critical article upon "The Death of the Old Year"

and "Ring Out, Wild Bells"].

Putnam's Monthly Magazine, III, 678-79 (June). Brief notice

of In Memoriam.

New York Daily Tribune, June 8. "Art and Literature in Lon-

don. From Our Own Correspondent."

Yale Literary Magazine, XIX, 298-99 (July). "Wordsworth and

Tennyson." W. W.


New York Daily Tribune, July 22. Review of Poems (London,


Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Literature, Science and Art,

XXXIII, 73 (September). "Tennyson."


Yale Literary Magazine, XX, 136-43 (January). Review of In

Memoriam. B.

Pioneer; or, California Monthly Magazine, III, 28-34 (Janu-

ary). "The Poems of Alfred Tennyson." Charles E. Havens.

Boston Daily Evening Transcript, January 16. "Tennyson's Bat-

tle Ode" [Review of "The Charge of the Light Brigade"].

Signed "Philo-Tennyson."

New York Daily Tribune, February 20. "Literature in Lon-

don . . . From Our Own Correspondent."

Peterson's Magazine, XXVII, 252 (March). Review of "The

Charge of the Light Brigade" in "Editor's Table."

Graham's Magazine, XL VI, 276-77 (March). Review of "The

Charge of the Light Brigade" in "Editor's Table."

Boston Daily Evening Transcript, March 15. "[Alexander]

Smith and the Poet Laureate."

Pioneer; or, California Monthly Magazine, III, 279-80 (June).

Review of "The Charge of the Light Brigade" in "Editor's

Table." [Ferdinand C. Ewer (?).]

Albion, 4th Ser., XIV, 346 (July 21). Brief notice of Maud, and

Other Poems. [From London Leader, June 23, 1855.]

Home Journal, July 31. Brief notice oiMaud, and Other Poems.

Boston Daily Evening Transcript, July 31. Review of Maud, and

Other Poems.

New York Daily Tribune, August 7. Review of Maud, and

Other Poems.

Boston Daily Evening Transcript, August 22. "Tennyson's Fa-

mous Battle Ode" [Brief notice of "The Charge of the Light


Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Literature, Science and Art,

XXXVI, 616-28 (September). "The Poetry of Alfred Tenny-

son." From Hogg's Instructor [V, 1-14 (July, 1855)]. Gerald


Putnam's Monthly Magazine, VI, 318 (September). Review of

Maud, and Other Poems.


Albion, 4 th Ser., XIV, 417 (September 1). Review of Maud, and

Other Poems.

Saturday Evening Post, September 8. Review of Maud, and

Other Poems.

Home Journal, September 15. Review of Maud, and Other


Littell's Living Age, XL VI, 54-57 (September 15). Review of

Maud, and Other Poems. From London Examiner [No. 2479,

pp. 483-84 (Aug. 4, 1855)].

, XL VI, 57-61 (September 15). Review of Maud, and

Other Poems. From London Spectator [XXVIII, 813-14 (Aug.

4> 1855)].

Bibliotheca Sacra, XII, 851 (October). Brief notice of Maud,

and Other Poems.

Harper's Monthly Magazine, XI, 701-06 (October). Review

of Maud, and Other Poems in "Editor's Easy Chair." [George

William Curtis.]

Putnam's Monthly Magazine, VI, 382-92 (October). "Alfred


American Phrenological Journal, XXII, 90-91 (October). "An

English and an American Poet" [Comparison of Maud, and

Other Poems and Whitman's Leaves of Grass]. [Walt Whit-


Graham's Magazine, XLVII, 360-61 (October). Brief notice of

Maud, and Other Poems in "Editor's Table."

Southern Literary Messenger, XXI, 638-39 (October). Review

of Maud, and Other Poems. [John R. Thompson(?).]

North American Review, LXXXI, 544-46 (October). Review

of Maud, and Other Poems. [Edward Everett Hale.]

Graham's Magazine, XLVII, 371-72 (October). Review of

Maud, and Other Poems.

Littell's Living Age, XLVII, 51-59 (October 6). Review of

Maud, and Other Poems. From Blackwood's Edinburgh

Magazine [LXXVIII, 311-21 (Sept., 1855)].

Home Journal, October 13. "Fusion of Authors and Publishers"

[Largely excerpts from review of Maud, and Other Poems,

Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, LXXVIII, 311-21 (Sept.,


, October 20. "Indecent Poetry" [Article upon "Fatima"].

, October 20. "More about 'Maud.' "


Home Journal, October 27. "Value of Half an Hour" [Letter to

editors of Home Journal concerning "Maud."] Y.

Knickerbocker, XLVI, 525-26 (November). Review of Maud,

and Other Poems.

Peterson's Magazine, XXVIII, 307-09 (November). "Tenny-

son's Maud." Jeremy Short.

Genius of the West, IV, 347-48 (November). Review of Maud,

and Other Poems in "Editor's Tableau."

New York Daily Times, November 13. Review of Maud, and

Other Poems.

Home Journal, December 15. "Idlewild Evening Lamp" [Com-

ment upon The Princess, In Memoriam, and Maud, and

Other Poems']. [Largely excerpts from Edinburgh Review,

CII, 498-519 (Oct., 1855).]

Boston Daily Evening Transcript, December 19. Review of

Maud, and Other Poems. W.


Crayon, III, 30-32 (January). Review of Maud, and Other

Poems in "Studies among the Leaves."

Christian Examiner, LX, 133-40 (January). Review of Maud,

and Other Poems.

Harper's Monthly Magazine, XII, 262 (January). Review of

Maud, and Other Poems in "Editor's Easy Chair." [George

William Curtis(?).]

Graham's Magazine, XL VIII, 71 (January). Comment upon

"Maud" in "Editor's Table."

Southern Literary Messenger, XXII, 97-100 (February). "Ten-

nyson's Portraiture of Woman." Cecilia.

Independent, VII, 48 (February 7). "Contemporary Poets" [Re-

view of Maud, and Other Poems].

Littell's Living Age, XLIX, 349 (May 10). "Tennyson and

Jeremy Taylor."

National Magazine, VIII, 562-63 (June). "Tennyson and Long-

fellow." Excerpts from Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine

[LXXIX, 125-38 (Feb., 1856)].

Albion, XV, 285 (June 14). Brief notice of first "Blue and Gold"

edition of Tennyson's Works.

New York Daily Tribune, June 20. Brief notice of first "Blue

and Gold" edition of Tennyson's Works.


Christian Examiner, LXI, 151 (July). Brief notice of first "Blue

and Gold" edition of Tennyson's Works.

North American Review, LXXXIII, 104-32 (July). "The Litera-

ture of Friendship" [Review of In Memoriam]. W. R. Alger.

Putnam's Monthly Magazine, VIII, 98 (July). Brief notice of

first "Blue and Gold" edition of Tennyson's Works.

Home Journal, August 16. "The English Poet-Laureate."

San Francisco Daily Evening Bulletin, August 25. "The Lotus- -


Knickerbocker, XL VIII, 307-08 (September). Brief notice of

first "Blue and Gold" edition of Tennyson's Works in "Edi-

tor's Table."

Graham's Magazine, XLIX, 275 (September). Brief notice of

first "Blue and Gold" edition of Tennyson's Works.

Arthur's Home Magazine, VIII, 180-81 (September). Review of

first "Blue and Gold" edition of Tennyson's Works.

Crayon, III, 314-16 (October). Comment upon Maud, and

Other Poems in "Country Correspondence."

Putnam's Monthly Magazine, VIII, 371-80 (October). "What

Is Poetry?" [Comment upon Tennyson's diction.]

National Magazine, IX, 408-15 (November). "Alfred Tenny-

son." [R. H. Stoddard.] See Table of Contents of Vol. IX.

Southern Literary Messenger, XXIII, 470-71 (December). Com-

ment upon "A Farewell" in "Editor's Table." [John R.

Thompson(?).] See Jackson, op. cit., p. 130.


Albion, 4th Ser., XXXV, 177 (April 11). "Woolner's Bust of

Tennyson." From "London Paper, March 14."

Russell's Magazine, I, 179, 181-82 (May). Comment upon

"Maud" and In Memoriam in "Editor's Table."

Yale Literary Magazine, XXII, 358-61 (August). "The Beauties

of Maud." D. G. B. [D. G. Brinton.] Brinton was one of the

editors of the August number: see XXII, 334.


New York Daily Times, January 28. "Alfred Tennyson and

Opium." H.

Presbyterian Quarterly Review, VI, 656-63, 681-85 (March).



Russell's Magazine, II, 500-01 (March). "Isabel, A Portrait."

Boston Daily Evening Transcript, March 18. "Tennyson." Ex-

cerpts from Presbyterian Quarterly Review [VI, 656-63, 681-

85 (March, 1858)].

Ladies' Repository, XVIII, 420-23 (July). Review of Maud,

and Other Poems. O. J. Victor, Esq.

Yale Literary Magazine, XXIV, 79-84 (November). "Locksley

Hall." C. C. C. "

, XXIV, 89-98 (December). "Tennyson's Maud as a Work

of Art." T. R. L. [Thomas R. Lounsbury.] Loimsbury was one

of the editors of the December number: see XXIV, 89.



Only those works actually referred to in the book are listed

in this bibliography. The American editions of Tennyson, the

gift-books, and the articles and reviews listed in the appendices

are not re-named here.

I. Works of Tennyson

Poems by Two Brothers. London: W. Simpkin and R. Marshall,


Poems, Chiefly Lyrical. London: Effingham Wilson, 1830.

Poems. London: Edward Moxon, 1833.

Poems, two volumes. London: Edward Moxon, 1842.

The Princess: a Medley. First, third, fourth, and fifth editions.

London: Edward Moxon, 1847, 1850, 1851, 1853.

In Memoriam. London: Edward Moxon, 1850.

Ode on the Death of the Duke of Wellington. London: Edward

Moxon, 1852.

Maud, and Other Poems. First and third editions. London: Ed-

ward Moxon, 1855, 1 ^56.

Select Poems of Alfred Tennyson, ed. William J. Rolfe. Boston:

J. R. Osgood and Company, 1885.

The Works of Alfred Tennyson, twelve volumes, ed. William J.

Rolfe. Boston: Estes and Lauriat, 1895-1898.

The Poetic and Dramatic Works of Alfred Lord Tennyson, ed.

William J. Rolfe. Student's Cambridge Edition. Boston and

New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1898.

II. Articles and Reviews

Announcement of Poems by Two Brothers. London Daily

Chronicle, April 27, 1827.

Review of Poems by Two Brothers. Gentleman's Magazine,

XCVII, Supplement to Part I, 609 (June, 1827).

Editorials on Alfred and Charles Tennyson. Tatler, February

24, 26, March 1, 3, 1831. [Leigh Hunt.]

"On Some of the Characteristics of Modern Poetry and on the

Lyrical Poems of Alfred Tennyson." Englishman's Magazine,

I, 616-28 (August, 1831). [Arthur Henry Hallam.]


Review of Poems (1842). Examiner, No. 1791, pp. 340-41 (May

28, 1842). [John Forster (?).]

. Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, N. S., IX, 502-08 (August,


-. Quarterly Review, LXX, 385-416 (Sept., 1842). [John


Westminster Review, XXXVIII, 371-90 (Oct., 1842).

R. M. M. [Richard Monckton Milnes].

"Lays of the Would-Be Laureates." Tait's Edinburgh Magazine,

N. S., X, 273-76 (May, 1843). Bon Gaultier [William Edmond-

stone Aytoun and Theodore Martin].

"Puffs and Poetry." Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, N. S., X, 649-

54 (Oct., 1843). Bon Gaultier.

"Diffusion of Books." Chambers's Edinburgh Journal, N. S., VI,

198-200 (Sept. 19, 1846).

Review of The Princess. Athenaeum, No. 1053, PP- 6-8 (Jan. 1,


. Howitt's Journal, III, 28-29 (Jan. 8, 1848).

. Spectator, XXI, 41-42 (Jan. 8, 1848).

. Gentleman's Magazine, N. S., XXIX, 115-31 (Feb.,


. Quarterly Review, LXXXII, 427-53 (March, 1848).

. Eclectic Review, 4th Ser., XXIII, 415-23 (April, 1848).

Sharpe's London Magazine, VI, 139-41 (April, 1848).

Review of Poems (London, 1848) and The Princess. North Brit-

ish Review, IX, 43-72 (May, 1848).

Announcement of Iiz Memoriam. London Times, June 8, 1850.

Review of In Memoriam. Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, N. S.,

XVII, 499-505 (August, 1850).

. North British Review, XIII, 532-55 (August, 1850).

"Tennyson." Eraser's Magazine, XLII, 245-55 (Sept., 1850).

[Charles Kingsley.]

"Our Weekly Gossip" [Article upon Tennyson's becoming Poet

Laureate]. Athenaeum, No. 1204, p. 1218 (Nov. 23, 1850).

[Henry F. Chorley.]

Review of Ode on the Death of the Duke of Wellington. Athe-

naeum, No. 1308, p. 1263 (Nov. 20, 1852).

. Literary Gazette, No. 1870, pp. 852-53 (Nov. 20, 1852).

Review of Speeches by the Right Hon. Thomas Babington Ma-

caulay. London Morning Chronicle, August 27, 1853.


Review of Maud, and Other Poems. Athenaeum, No. 1449, pp.

893-95 (August 4, 1855).

. Bentley's Miscellany, XXXVIII, 262-65 (Sept., 1855).

. Dublin University Magazine, XLVI, 332-40 (Sept.,


, Westminster Review, N. S., VIII, 597-601 (Oct., 1855).

-. National Review, I, 377-410 (Oct., 1855).

Review of Enoch Arden and Other Poems. North American Re-

view, XCIX, 626 (Oct., 1864). James Russell Lowell.

. North American Review, C, 305-07 (Jan., 1865).

"Tears— Idle Tears." Land We Love, III, 470-75 (Oct., 1867).

Colonel J. T. L. Preston.

"Some Reminiscences of Fitz-Greene Halleck." Frank Leslie's

Illustrated Newspaper, XXV, 243 (Jan. 4, 1868). Joel Benton.

"Fitz-Greene Halleck." Putnam's Monthly Magazine, N. S., I,

231-47 (Feb., 1868). Evert A. Duyckinck.

"Literary Gossip" [Poe and Tennyson]. Athenaeum, No. 2473,

P- 395 (March 20, 1875).

"Reminiscences of a Poet-Painter." Lippincott's Magazine,

XIX, 307-21 (March, 1877). John R. Tait.

"Tennyson." International Review, IV, 397-408 (May, 1877).

Bayard Taylor.

"Fitz-Greene Halleck." North American Review, CXXV, 60-67

(July, 1877). Bayard Taylor.

"Tennyson and Washington Irving." Notes and Queries, 5th

Ser., XII, 65 (July 26, 1879). D. Barron Brightwell.

Review of Tiresias and Other Poems. Atlantic Monthly, LVII,

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Life and Letters. London: Chapman and Hall, Ltd., 1917.



Chapter I

1. The earliest record that I have of a copy in this country occurs in

the accession files of the Boston Athenaeum. The Athenaeum bought the

copy which is still in its library from Leonard & Company, Boston book-

sellers, for fifteen cents on December 24, 1858. Bayard Taylor wrote in

May, 1877 (International Review, IV, 399), that he knew of but one copy

in this country: that in the possession of Dr. Edwin H. Chapin, Universal-

is! minister and rare books collector. In the same year Harper & Brothers

made a strenuous search for copies and finally found one, Dr. Chapin's

(MS letter, J. W. Harper, Jr. to Evert A. Duyckinck, March 23, 1877, in

the Duyckinck Collection, New York Public Library).

2. Most American magazines from 1827 to 1842, of whatever nature,

published regularly a list of new books; the eclectic magazines published

lengthy lists of new British books. Although I have seen hundreds of such

lists, I have not yet found an announcement of Poems by Two Brothers.

3. Calling the two quotations "identical," Una Pope-Hennessy (Edgar

Allan Poe, London, 1934, pp. 54-55) says, "Perhaps this is more than a

coincidence"; and Emile Lauvriere (L'Etrange vie et les etranges amours

d'Edgar Poe, Paris, 1934, p. 68) casually takes for granted that Poe had

seen the Tennyson book.

4. In the first place, the Martial quotations were not "identical." The

sentence is Nos haec novimus esse nihil (Book XIII, Epigram 2, line 8).

Poe quoted it correctly, but Tennyson had Haec nos, etc. Then too, the use

of the sentence as a motto was not new in 1827. It had appeared upon the

title pages of Dryden's The Rival Ladies (1664) and Gay's The Beggar's

Opera (1728), and it was the motto for an edition of Southey's poems in

1815. Various resemblances between Poems by Tivo Brothers and Tamer-

lane and Other Poems in subject matter and stylistic characteristics can

be explained by the fact that they had a common model, Byron, and that

both were written by young boys at about the same time. The brief

prefaces, strikingly alike, seem obviously to have been influenced by Byron's

preface to Hours of Idleness. Although its exact date of publication is un-

known, Tamerlane and Other Poems could not have appeared more than

six months later than Poems by Two Brothers (see Harold Nicolson,

Tennyson, London, 1923, p. 49; and Mary E. Phillips, Edgar Allan Poe,

The Man, Philadelphia, 1926, pp. 305-07). In his recent facsimile edition

of Tamerlane and Other Poems (New York, 1941, p. xlviii), Thomas Ollive

202 NOTES [Chapter I]

Mabbott concludes that Poe "could have known nothing" of Poems by

Two Brothers.

5. See Dorothie Bobbe, Fanny Kemble (New York, 1931), p. 27; and a

letter, Fanny Kemble to Harriet St. Leger, August 17, 1833, in Records

of a Girlhood (New York, 1879), p. 581. Miss Kemble's published journal

of her voyage to America in 1832 tells in detail of her reading and her

literary discussions with the other passengers, but Tennyson is never

mentioned. See Journal of Frances Ann Butler (London, 1835), pp. 1-48:

Her letters and later journals show that she talked frequently of Tennyson

during her stay in America, but there is no recorded reference to Poems

by Two Brothers.

6. See Thomas J. Wise, A Bibliography of the Writings of Alfred Lord

Tennyson (London, 1908), I, 12-15. An American library now owns the

only known copy of the separate print: the William Harris Arnold copy in

the Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, California.

7. Accession files, item 1396, tenth sale, October 11.

8. No. 91, p. 456 (July 22, 1829). J ust founded in 1829, this magazine

was read very little, if at all, in America in 1829.

9. I have checked scores of early American booksellers' catalogues and

broadsides advertising book auctions, including the excellent collection

of the Grolier Club in New York City, which the Club kindly allowed me

to use, but I have not yet seen a Tennyson book listed for sale before

1842. It seems true, without exception, that Americans who owned copies

before that time either bought them in England or had them sent directly

from there.

10. The Works of Alfred Tennyson, twelve volumes, ed. William J. Rolfe

(Boston, 1895-98), I, 50: hereafter referred to as Tennyson's Works. Evert

A. Duyckinck's copy of Poems, Chiefly Lyrical was in the Duyckinck Col-

lection presented to the Lenox Library of New York City in 1878 (see

Lenox Library Short-Title Lists, privately printed, 1887). The Lenox Li-

brary became a part of the New York Public Library in 1895. The copy,

now in the New York Public Library, bears Duyckinck's signature.

11. MS letter, December 29, 1840, Park Benjamin Collection, Columbia

University Library.

12. Lowell had a copy for a while both years. He quoted a stanza

of "O Darling Room" in the notes of his Harvard Class Poem, published

in August, 1838 (see below), and on September 1, 1838, he wrote in a

letter to Emerson apologizing for some derogatory lines about Emerson's

doctrines in the Class Poem: "I scarcely dare to look at the Tennyson

you lent me without expecting some of the devils on the cover to make

faces at me" (Horace Elisha Scudder, James Russell Lowell, Cambridge,

Mass., 1901, I, 59). Since Tennyson's volumes had originally no devils

on their covers, Lowell's reference is probably to some of Emerson's draw-

ings. He had a habit of drawing such figures upon his books. Emerson's

copy of the Poems of 1833 has been lost. Professor William J. Rolfe wrote

in 1886 that it had "recently disappeared from Emerson's library and

could not be traced" (Preface to his edition of Select Poems of Alfred Lord

Tennyson, Boston, 1885). Lowell had the book again — or still — in 1839,

for five quotations from the 1833 Poems written into a commonplace

[Chapter I] NOTES 203

book which he kept from 1837 to 1839 bear the date May 2, 1839 (MS

notebook, James Russell Lowell Collection, Harvard College Library).

13. The manuscript is now in the Pierpont Morgan Library of New

York City. The title page is spaced and copied just as it appears in the

book, and the poems are carefully copied with pen and ink in double

columns on thick paper. All is in Lowell's handwriting.

14. "This P.M. exchanged [pulpits] with Mr. [Nathaniel L.] Frothing-

ham, who tell [sic] Charles [Emerson's brother] don't [sic] like Tennyson

which I lent him as a gem to a virtuoso" (letter to Edward Bliss Emerson,

December 25, 1831, in The Letters of Ralph Waldo Emerson, six volumes,

ed. Ralph L. Rusk, New York, 1939, I, 341: hereafter referred to as Emer-

son's Letters). Emerson's copy of Poems, Chiefly Lyrical is now in the vault

in Emerson's home at Concord and bears his signature. It was probably

the first Tennyson book to reach America.

15. Edward Everett Hale, Lights of Two Centuries (New York and

Chicago, 1887), p. 497.

16. See ibid. Certainly much of the early reading of Tennyson was done

from Emerson's books. Sketchy notes and jotted reminders in unpublished

portions of Emerson's journals indicate the extent to which his books

were circulating. A note, "Tennyson for [F. H.] Hedge," in a list of books

to be lent in 1833 shows how early Tennyson was being passed around

in the transcendental group (MS "Pocket Note-Book," dated 1833, Papers

of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association, Cambridge, Mass.).

17. II, 323-25 (December, 1836). The review is unsigned; however, the

index to the volume assigns it to the "Editor," and in a letter of April 24,

1861, to Evert A. Duyckinck, Clarke wrote that he was the sole editor of

the Western Messenger from April, 1836, to May, 1839 (MS letter, Duyckinck

Collection, New York Public Library). According to the review, Clarke

borrowed Poems, Chiefly Lyrical from "a friend," very probably Emerson.

18. XXIII, 305-27 (Jan., 1838). Professor William J. Rolfe says that Dwight

told him that he had borrowed both books from Emerson for the prepa-

ration of the review (Biographical Sketch in The Poetic and Dramatic

Works of Alfred Lord Tennyson, one volume, Boston and New York, 1898:

hereafter referred to as Tennyson's Works, Student's Cambridge Edition).

19. Later Mrs. Nathaniel Hawthorne. For an account of the drawing,

see a letter, Elizabeth Peabody to William J. Rolfe, 1884, quoted in Rolfe 's

Preface to Select Poems of Alfred Lord Tennyson (Boston, 1885).

20. James Russell Lowell and His Friends (Boston and New York, 1899),

p. 21.

21. Christian Examiner, XXXIII, 237 (Nov., 1842).

22. Harbinger, VI, 158 (March 18, 1848).

23. See Christopher North's review of Poems, Chiefly Lyrical, Black-

wood's Edinburgh Magazine, XXXI, 721-41 (May, 1832). Tennyson seems

never to have realized that many of North's remarks were aimed not at

him but at his friends who had praised him too highly.

24. Journals of Ralph Waldo Emerson, ten volumes, ed. Edward Waldo

Emerson and Waldo Emerson Forbes (New York, 1911), III, 347 (Oct. 27,

1834): hereafter referred to as Emerson's Journals. The lines were in-

correctly quoted from memory:

2 o4 NOTES [Chapter I]

Let them rave!

Thou art quiet in the grave.

See Tennyson's Works, I, 201. Emerson again quoted the lines as they

appear in the Journals in "Heroism" of Essays, First Series (see The Com-

plete Works of Ralph Waldo Emerson, twelve volumes, ed. Edward Waldo

Emerson, Cambridge, Mass., 1903, II, 263: hereafter referred to as Emerson's


25. Journals, IV, 72 (June 22, 1836). Cf. "It would give me new scope

to write on topics proper to this age and read discourses on Goethe, Car-

lyle, Wordsworth, Canova, Thorwaldsen, Tennyson, O'Connell, Baring,

Channing, and Webster. To these I must write up" (ibid., V, 17, August 18,

1838). Cf. also "A notice of modern literature ought to include (ought it

not?) a notice of Carlyle, of Tennyson, of Landor, of Bettina, of Sampson

Reed" (ibid., V, 425, June-July, 1840).

26. Journals, V, 57 (Sept. 21, 1838). In a letter to William Henry Furness,

September 20, 1838. Emerson wrote "Do you read Tennyson? a beautiful

half of a poet" (Records of a Lifelong Friendship: Ralph Waldo Emerson

and Willliam Henry Furness, New York, 1910, p. 7).

27. Journals, V, 6 (July 1, 1838).

28. Ibid., IV, 411-12 (March 18, 1838). The Tennyson quotation is from

"The Lotos-Eaters," lines 3-4. It was a favorite quotation with Emerson.

He quoted it again in his essay, "Walter Savage Landor" (Dial, II, 264,

October, 1841). For "The Lotos-Eaters," see Tennyson's Works, II, 39.

29. MS letter, undated, in the Craigie House Papers. The letter is quoted

in full in Lawrance Thompson, Young Longfellow (New York, 1938),

pp. 413-14. Longfellow had bought a copy of the 1833 Poems, undoubtedly

when he was in London in 1835, and in September, 1837, he had the book

bound in purple leather, and then presented it to Miss Appleton (MS

journals of Longfellow in the Craigie House Papers). The book, bearing

the signature, "Fanny C. Appleton," is now in the Craigie House, Cam-

bridge, Massachusetts. The letter probably was written soon after the

poems were sent. Of the two quotations in the letter, the first is from "The

Lotos-Eaters," and the second is from that portion of "Rosalind" which

was omitted in revision (see Tennyson's Works, I, 335-36). The misspell-

ing Tennison was common with Longfellow for many years. He spelled it

thus as late as July 14, 1846 (MS journals, Craigie House Papers).

30. MS letters of Fanny Kemble, 1840, Craigie House Papers.

31. See Records of a Girlhood, p. 581; and Margaret Armstrong, Fanny

Kemble, A Passionate Victorian (New York, 1938), p. 188.

32. Papers on Literature and Art (New York, 1846), p. vii.

33. Letter from Margaret Fuller to Emerson, November 24, 1839, in

Emerson's Letters, II, 239.

34. II, 135 (July, 1841). The review is unsigned, but George Willis Cooke

(An Historical and Biographical Introduction to Accompany The Dial,

Cleveland, 1902, II, 201) assigns it to Margaret Fuller, and internal evi-

dence leaves little doubt of the authorship.

35. Letter, Emerson to Carlyle, July 31, 1846, in The Correspondence

of Thomas Carlyle and Ralph Waldo Emerson, i8^-i8'/2, ed. Charles Eliot

Norton (Boston, 1883), II, 116.

36. Higginson, "A Child of the College," Atlantic Monthly, LXXVIII,

[Chapter I] NOTES 205

767 (Dec, 1896). Maria White, later Mrs. James Russell Lowell and already

his close friend, doubtless had got the books through Lowell. In July,

1850, Higginson wrote to Emerson: "During your absence I made a visit

to your study . . . [and] saw several things which I coveted, and the first

edition of Tennyson was especially tempting; I had pleasant memories

of it and had long wished to meet it again. ... I borrowed it, promising

myself to return it in a week. Alas, that the conscience should be so hard-

ened by time, but I have kept it six weeks, and do not feel so guilty as

when I first pocketed it" (Letters and Journals of Thomas Wentworth

Higginson, 1846-1906, ed. Mary Thacher Higginson, Boston and New York,

1921, pp. 33-34)-

37. Higginson, "The Equation of Fame," in Studies in History and Let-

ters (Cambridge, Mass., 1900), pp. 280-82. Higginson quoted Channing

as saying of the passage, "I wish you to say what you think. I regard

Tennyson as a great calf, but you are entitled to your own opinion" {ibid.,

p. 281).

38. "The Poems of Alfred Tennyson," XXI, 152 (Sept., 1842). This un-

signed review has been assigned to Poe (The Complete Works of Edgar

Allan Poe, seventeen volumes, ed. James A. Harrison, New York, 1902,

XI, 127: hereafter referred to as Poe's Works), but it was obviously by

Griswold, editor of Graham's from July, 1842, to June, 1843. A Review

of Griswold 's Poets and Poetry of America, published in the Philadelphia

Saturday Museum for January 28, 1843, assigned the controversial Gra-

ham's review to Griswold and scornfully analyzed it as a stock example

of Griswold's poor judgment and bad writing. This review of Griswold

has been widely assigned to Poe (Killis Campbell, The Mind of Poe

and Other Studies, Cambridge, Mass., 1933, pp. 213-14, 226-27). The anony-

mous poem, The Poets and Poetry of America, A Satire by Lavante (Phila-

delphia, 1847) quoted from the review in the Saturday Museum a passage

which it tagged "Poe's critique on Griswold" (see edition by Geoffrey

Quarles, New York, 1887, p. 3 of original notes). And Griswold's account

of Tennyson in The Poets and Poetry of England in the Nineteenth Cen-

tury (Philadelphia, 1845, p. 445) contained several complete sentences and

two factual errors which appeared in the Graham's review.

39. Several English anthologies and books of criticism played a small

part in acquainting Americans with Tennyson. The Gem, A Literary An-

nual for 1831, a London gift-book to which Tennyson contributed three

poems (see Tennyson's Works, Student's Cambridge Edition, p. 790), was

advertised in Boston in December, 1830, as one of the most attractive of

the English annuals (New England Galaxy, Dec. 10, 1830). Specimens of

the Table Talk of the Late Samuel Taylor Coleridge, which contains

several references to Tennyson, was published in an American edition in

1835 (New York; Harper & Brothers). Also, an anthology of modern British

poetry, The Book of Gems (London, 1840), which contained a biographical

account and six poems of Tennyson, circulated to some extent in America:

the Orion, small literary magazine of Penfield, Georgia, quoted from the

biographical account in September, 1842 (I, 395).

40. Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, the Edinburgh Review, the Quar-

terly Review, the Westminster Review, and the London Review, each of

which reviewed Tennyson at least once before 1842, were all reprinted in

206 NOTES [Chapter I]

America in the 1830's (see sets of the American editions listed in the Union

Catalogue of the Library of Congress). Notices in newspapers and magazines

spoke of the excellence of the reprints and of the financial success of the

publishers (Providence, R. I., Literary Journal, I, 247, Jan. 4, 1834; New

York Literary Gazette and Journal of Belles Lettres, No. 8, p. 126, Dec. 5,

1834; New York Sunday Morning News, May 8, 1836; etc.).

41. As early as 1828, Edward Willmer, famous Liverpool bookseller, was

forwarding English magazines to America "by the very first vessel which

sails after they are published" (Albion, VII, 127, Sept. 27, 1828), and a little

later the firm of Messrs. Wiley and Putnam was delivering at New York,

Boston, and Philadelphia "all the magazines ... by the twentieth of the

month on which they are dated, and from a week to fifteen days before

they can be reprinted" (Knickerbocker, XVIII, 180, Feb., 1841).

42. Phillips, op. cit., pp. 286-90, 590-92.

43. New World, V, 238 (Oct. 8, 1842).

44. XLIX, 81-96. This unsigned review is commonly attributed to John

Gibson Lockhart, editor of the Quarterly, but it was undoubtedly written

by Croker. An undated letter, Lockhart to Croker, written apparently just

after the completion of the article and recently discovered in the Lock-

hart Collection of the University of Michigan Library, seems to clear up

any uncertainty. The letter is printed in the Colophon (New Graphic

Series, I, 95, Feb., 1940): "I have read the revised article on Tennyson

and think you have more completely effected your purpose, & that as

shortly as it cd have been done. It is wonderful that such folly shd pass

for poetry with anybody! . . . ."

Equally conclusive evidence of Croker 's authorship appears in letters

between the two concerning John Sterling's favorable review of Tennyson's

Poems of 1842 in the Quarterly (LXX, 385-416, Sept., 1842). Offended by

Lockhart's accepting the article, Croker wrote, "... it was ... a public

and direct dissent from, and disclaimer of, my opinions," and in a con-

ciliatory tone, Lockhart answered, "By accepting it, I fancied I was taking

the easiest way to do Mr. Tennyson justice, and the way most certain to

save you from any unpleasant feeling with reference to the article on his

early rhymes." These two letters, dated November 20 and 22, 1842, were

published in full in the Quarterly for April, 1909 (CCX, 775), but until

very recently little notice has been taken of them. These letters, together

with the one newly discovered, make the assignment of the review to Croker


45. To justify his observations, the Albion's reviewer quoted the first

stanza of "O Darling Room" (N. S., I, 176, June 1, 1833). A popular New

York weekly, the Albion was composed largely of material selected from

British books and journals. It published two songs from Tennyson's "The

Miller's Daughter" within six weeks after the appearance of the 1833 volume

containing the poem (N. S., I, 33, Feb. 2, 1833).

46. An unsigned review of Grenville Mellen's The Martyr's Triumph,

Buried Valley, and Other Poems, IV, 325-26.

47. Review of Longfellow's Ballads and Other Poems, Graham's Maga-

zine, XX, 189 (March, 1842). The review is unsigned, but it is commonly

assigned to Poe. See Poe's Works, XI, 64-68; Phillips, op. cit., p. 690; etc.

On several occasions before 1842, Poe named Tennyson in the same breath

[Chapter I] NOTES 207

with the established poets. In January, 1837, ne hesitated to assign William

Cullen Bryant "a place with the spiritual Shelleys, or Coleridges, or Words-

worths, or with Keats, or even Tennyson, or Wilson, or with some other

burning lights of our own day, to be valued in a day to come" (review

of Bryant's Poems, Southern Literary Messenger, III, 49). See also Poe's

"A Notice of William Cullen Bryant," Burton's Gentleman's Magazine,

VI, 205 (May, 1840).

48. Graham's Magazine, XX, 195-99 ( A P rH > 1842). The review was

signed "C."

49. XXI, 152 (Sept., 1842).

50. Letter to Rufus W. Griswold, July 14, 1842, in Passages from the

Correspondence and Other Papers of Rufus W. Griswold (Cambridge,

Mass., 1898), p. 113.

5 1 - n, 325 (July 16, 1842).

52. Letter from Margaret Fuller to Emerson, December 6, 1840, in Emer-

son's Letters, II, 363. Neither Lowell's letters nor his biographers indicate

what sonnets were included in this group. Margaret Fuller was willing to

publish the last one in the group if Lowell should consent for it to go

alone (ibid.). One sonnet of Lowell's appeared in the Dial for January,

1841 (I, 366): "Sonnet — To a Voice Heard in Mount Auburn, July, 1839."

It possibly owes something to Tennyson: it speaks of "half -sad memories

of other years" and draws a comparison between a bird and a girl, as

Tennyson liked to do.

53. XXX, 131-34 (March, 1841).

54. LII, 465 (April, 1841). The review is unsigned, but George Willis

Cooke (A Bibliography of James Russell Lowell, Boston and New York,

1906, p. 77) assigns it to Hillard.

55. "James Russell Lowell," North American Review, CLIII, 462 (Oct.,

1891). "

56. MS notebook, James Russell Lowell Collection, Harvard College Li-


57. Graham's Magazine, XIX, 171 (Oct., 1841). The first eight of the six-

teen stanzas are quoted.

58. Poems, Chiefly Lyrical, pp. 14-18; reprinted in Tennyson's Works,

I, 159-61.

59. Boston, 1841, pp. 110-11; reprinted with revisions in The Complete

Writings of James Russell Lowell (sixteen volumes, Cambridge, Mass.,

1904), IX, 14: hereafter referred to as Lowell's Works.

60. Poems (London, 1833), 87-93; reprinted with revisions in Tennyson's

Works, I, 256-60. The refrain was much revised; see notes.

61. Graham's Magazine, XX, 89 (Feb., 1842); reprinted with revisions in

Works, IX, 53-56.

62. Graham's Magazine, XX, 305 (June, 1842); reprinted in Poems, ed.

Edmund M. Ashe (New York, 1894), pp. 96-97. The second stanza is

quoted. The first line, incidentally, suggests Wordsworth's lines to Lucy:

— Fair as a star, when only one

Is shining in the sky.

63. A Year's Life, p. 104; reprinted in Works, IX, 6-10. In a letter to

G. B. Loring on May 10, 1839, Lowell quoted two lines from the Choric

Song of "The Lotos-Eaters":

2 o8 NOTES [Chapter I]

Music that gentlier on the spirit lies,

Than tired eyelids upon tired eyes.

Here, he said, Tennyson described gentle, soothing music "more beauti-

fully than any poet I am acquainted with" (Works, XIV, 49).

64. Other early poems by Lowell which may be assigned to this Tenny-

sonian group are "The Serenade," "Music," and "Threnodia on an Infant."

"The Serenade" and "Music" appeared first in April and May, 1840, in the

Southern Literary Messenger (VI, 248, 332-33); both were included in A

Year's Life; and neither is collected in late editions. The "Threnodia" first

appeared in the Knickerbocker in May, 1839 (XIII, 433), and was reprinted

slightly revised in Works, IX, 3-6.

65. Poems, Chiefly Lyrical, pp. 3-5; reprinted with revisions in Tenny-

son's Works, I, 153-54.

66. A Year's Life, pp. 176-78.

67. See Poems, Chiefly Lyrical, pp. 21-23; reprinted with revisions in

Tennyson's Works, I, 164-66.

68. All three are included in A Year's Life, and are uncollected in late

editions. All first appeared in the Southern Literary Messenger: "What

reck I of the stars when I," March, 1840 (VI, 213); "Lift up the curtains

of thine eyes" and "Isabel," June, 1840 (VI, 416, 468).

69. Poems, Chiefly Lyrical, pp. 6-8; reprinted with revisions in Tenny-

son's Works, I, 155.

70. See ibid.; and Lowell's Works, IX, 10-13. "Irene" first appeared in

A Year's Life (pp. 112-17). In April, 1842, Lowell in speaking of Jeremy

Taylor's "Countess of Carbery" and Tennyson's "Isabel" called them "poems

in the truest and highest sense of the word" ("Old English Dramatists,"

Boston Miscellany of Literature and Fashion, I, 151).

71. V, 95 (Aug. 6, 1842). The New World was one of the few American

magazines which included in their columns some of Tennyson's poems

before 1842. That James Aldrich, one of its editors from 1841 to 1845,

knew of Tennyson, we have already seen.

72. First published as "The Fifth Psalm" in the Knickerbocker, October,

1839 (XIV, 330-31); reprinted in The Complete Writings of Henry Wads-

worth Longfellow (eleven volumes, Boston and New York, 1904), I, 31-33:

hereafter referred to as Longfellow's Works.

73. Review of Voices of the Night, Burton's Gentlemen's Magazine, VI,

103 (Feb., 1840). The rather long and violent accusation was repeated al-

most word for word in the Broadway Journal for March 29, 1845 (I,

195-96). The two poems were quoted in full in each case.

74. Undated letter to Samuel Ward quoted in Henry M. Hall, "Long-

fellow's Letters to Samuel Ward," Putnam's Monthly, III, 42 (Oct., 1907).

Lawrance Thompson (op. cit., p. 416) dates the letter between February 10

and 27, 1840.

75. See Phillips, op. cit., pp. 405, 533-34, 876-77, 1047.

76. XXXII, 321-22 (Jan., 1844). Poe was angered by the article, which

he thought was by Dickens, but which was almost certainly by John Forster.

See Phillips, op. cit., pp. 900-02; a letter, Lowell to Poe, June 27, 1844,

in Passages from the Correspondence and Other Papers of Rufus W. Gris-

wold, p. 151; and Killis Campbell's edition of Poe's Poems (Boston, 1917),

p. 238. Campbell assigned the review to Forster without argument.

[Chapter I] NOTES 209

77. See Poe's "James Aldrich," Godey's Magazine and Lady's Book, XXIV,

16-17 (July, 1846); reprinted in Works, XV, 62-64. Also, The Poets and

Poetry of America, ed. Rufus W. Griswold (Philadelphia, 1850), pp. 399-


78. New York Mirror, XVII, 283 (Feb. 29, 1840); reprinted in The Poets

and Poetry of America, p. 400. The second and fourth of five stanzas are

quoted. Cf. especially Tennyson's "The Sleeping Beauty," Poems, Chiefly

Lyrical, p. 143; reprinted in Works, II, 222.

79. Poe's "James Aldrich," Works, XV, 63-64. The poem was written

probably around 1842. For others of Aldrich's Tennysonian poems, see

"Lines" (New World, I, 433, Dec. 12, 1840); "Beatrice" (ibid., Ill, 321,

Nov. 20, 1841); "Viola" (ibid., V, 16, July 2, 1842); etc.

80. "To Susannah," anonymous, New York Atlas Magazine, I, 45 (Feb. 1,


81. "Kate," anonymous, Lady's World of Fashion, I, 104 (April, 1842).

Just above the title is a heading "Sonnets on Names," which suggests

Lowell, as does the whole poem, and Lowell's "Serenade" appears in the

same issue (p. 126); however, "Kate" has never been assigned to Lowell.

For other apparent imitations, see "Midnight Mass," Philadelphia Visitor

and Parlour Companion, V, 232 (August, 1839); "Charming Roselle," New

York Mirror, XVII, 57 (Aug. 13, 1839); "Why Comes He Not," Godey's Lady's

Book, XXV, 33 (July, 1842); etc. A remarkable resemblance of a different

sort exists between Tennyson's "The Palace of Art" and a poem which

George H. Colton, later author of the long poem, "Tecumseh," wrote while

a student at Yale. Colton's poem "A Fragment" (Yale Literary Magazine,

V, 300-07, April, 1840) is entirely different from "The Palace of Art" in

form, but the two poems express almost exactly the same philosophy. The

New Englander in noting the parallel (VII, 237-38, May, 1849) rejected the

idea of imitation on grounds of date, but Colton may well have seen

Tennyson's poem.

82. Class Poem (Cambridge, 1838), p. 48. The quotation is in a note to

the lines concerning Wordsworth's "Peter Bells and half-starved asses."

83. Letter to Harriet St. Leger, August 17, 1833, in Records of a Girlhood,

p. 581.

84. An account of Holmes's lecture on Tennyson and Browning in the

series of "Lowell Institute Lectures on English Poetry," Boston Daily

Evening Transcript, April 20, 1853. The condemned song is undoubtedly

the "English War-Song," Poems, Chiefly Lyrical, pp. 138-40; reprinted in

Works (Student's Cambridge Edition), pp. 785-86.

85. Holmes left New York upon his first trip to Europe on April 3, 1833

(John T. Morse, Jr., Life and Letters of Oliver Wendell Holmes, Cambridge,

Mass., 1896, I, 83), four months after the publication of "The Lady of

Shalott." Therefore if the quoted statement is true, Holmes saw the manu-

script in America. This is possible but quite unlikely. Possibly Holmes

meant that he heard the revised version read before its publication in 1842,

or possibly the reporter copied his statement incorrectly. Neither the Boston

Daily Evening Traveller nor the Boston Daily Courier reported the lecture.

86. See Thomas R. Lounsbury, The Life and Tijnes of Tennyson (New

Haven, Conn., 1915), pp. 446-64.

87. See Clarence Gohdes, The Periodicals of American Transcendental-

2io NOTES [Chapter I]

ism (Durham, N. C, 1931), pp. 17-29; and Frank Luther Mott, A History of

American Magazines (Cambridge, Mass., 1938), I, 658-63.

88. Only one other of Tennyson's poems appeared in the Messenger:

"The Mystic" in June, 1838 (V, 160-61).

89. The Album contains one other poem by Tennyson: "Lost Hope" in

June, 1837 (II, 373).

90. Arcturus, II, 161.

91. MS letter to James Russell Lowell, December 17, 1841, Lowell Collec-

tion, Harvard College Library. In 1831 Leigh Hunt wrote for his London

daily journal, the Tatler, four articles upon the poems of Alfred and Charles

Tennyson (Feb. 24, 26, and March 1, 3). The first two articles were devoted

largely to Alfred, and the last two to Charles. Hunt hailed both of them as

great poets.

92. For selections elsewhere, see those already referred to in footnotes;

also "Isabel" (New England Galaxy, Dec. 8, 1832); "The Death of the Old

Year" (Boston Daily Evening Transcript, Dec. 31, 1841; the poem had the

title "Farewell to the Old Year"); "New Year's Eve" (Lowell, Mass., Literary

Souvenir, V, 17, Jan. 15, 1842); "Lilian," "The Merman," and "Mariana"

(Lady's World of Fashion, I, 52, 55, Feb., 1842; and I, 136, May, 1842).

93. "Mariana," I, 9-10 (Feb. 9); "Kate," I, 39 (March 2); "Adeline," I, 67

(March 30); "To J. S." [James Spedding], I, 136 (May 25); "The Ballad of

Oriana," I, 137 (June 1); "Margaret," I, 157 (June 15); "To " ["All good

things have not kept aloof"], I, 170 (June 29). "To J. S." and "To " were

entitled merely "Stanzas," with no acknowledgement to Tennyson. Since its

first reprinting in 1872, "To " has as its title its new first line: "My Life

is full of weary days." "The Ballad of Oriana" was prefaced by a few orig-

inal sentences of praise and a paragraph concerning it quoted from John

Sullivan Dwight's review in the Christian Examiner.

94. "To " ["All good things have not kept aloof"], III, 140 (Aug. 28,

1841); "Margaret," III, 330 (Nov. 20, 1841); "The Sleeping Beauty," IV, 141

(Feb. 26, 1842); "Adeline," IV, 206 (March 26, 1842); "The May Queen," IV,

411 (June 25, 1842); "The Ballad of Oriana," V, 47 (July 16, 1842). "To "

was entitled "Stanzas," with no acknowledgement to Tennyson. "The Sleep-

ing Beauty" was entitled "The Charmed Sleeper." "The Ballad of Oriana"

was prefaced by the same sentences of praise and the same quoted para-

graph which had appeared with it in the Literary Gazette.

95. Quarto Edition, I, 373 (Sept. 3, 1836), and X, 243 (Jan. 2, 1841).

"The Death of the Old Year" had the title "Farewell to the Old Year."

96. XVI, 363 (May 11, 1839); and XVII, 267 (Feb. 15, 1840).

97. MS letter, Craigie House Papers. Probably Longfellow had borrowed

Poems, Chiefly Lyrical from Emerson, who had told C. C. Little that Long-

fellow owned a copy of the Poems. Emerson owned both books, but prob-

ably the Poems had been borrowed by someone harder to reach than was


98. The opening sentence of Tennyson's letter of February 22, 1841, to

Wheeler, quoted in part below, states that it is an answer to a communica-

tion of December 25.

99. See Emerson's letter to Carlyle, July 1, 1842, in The Correspondence

of Thomas Carlyle and Ralph Waldo Emerson, II, 3. For accounts of

Wheeler, see William Augustus Davis, Biographical Notice of Charles

[Chapter II] NOTES 211

Stearns Wheeler (Boston, 1843); and Cooke, An Historical and Biographical

Introduction to Accompany The Dial, I, 161-65.

100. See Lowell's letter of December 5, 1841, to Evert A. Duyckinck,

quoted below.

101. Alfred, Lord Tennyson, A Memoir by His Son (New York, 1897),

I, 178: hereafter referred to as the Memoir.

102. MS letter, Duke University Library.

103. MS letter, December 5, 1841, Duyckinck Collection, New York Public

Library. The letter is printed in Lowell's Works, XIV, 78. Duyckinck's

News-Gong, A Literary Intelligencer was issued in three numbers in 1841

and 1842 as a supplement to the Arcturus. No copy of any number can be

located now. Lowell's letter refers to Duyckinck's comments upon Tenny-

son in the News-Gong.

104. MS letter, Duyckinck to Lowell, December 17, 1841, James Russell

Lowell Collection, Harvard College Library.

105. Ill, 235 (Feb., 1842). The Lady's World of Fashion exulted in like

manner. Having heard rumors of America's demand for a new edition, the

Lady's World thought that the Boston edition was to precede the London,

and even announced as early as February, 1842, that it had already appeared


Chapter II

1. For a concise discussion of the contents of the two volumes and the

revisions of the poems, see Lounsbury, op. cit., pp. 391-415.

2. MS letter, Papers of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association.

3. MS letter, November ?, 1842. Widener Collection, Harvard College


4. J. C Derby, Fifty Years among Authors, Books and Publishers (New

York, 1884), p. 617.

5. William D. Ticknor & Co., 1833-1845; Ticknor, Reed & Fields, 1845-

1854; Ticknor and Fields, 1854-1868; Fields, Osgood & Co., 1868-1871; James

R. Osgood & Co., 1871-1878; Houghton, Osgood & Co., 1878-1880; James R.

Osgood & Co., 1880-1885; Ticknor & Co., 1885-1889; Houghton Mifflin &

Co., 1889-.

6. Caroline Ticknor, Haiuthorne and His Publisher (Boston and New

York, 1913), p. 3.

7. Letter to B. H. Ticknor, September 4, 1889, in Ticknor, op. cit., p. 5.

8. It is often referred to as the earliest (see Derby, loc. cit.; and Ticknor,

op. cit., p. 3). Several American publishers had paid English authors small

portions of the proceeds from American editions as early as 1838 (see

William Clyde Wilkins, First and Early American Editions of the Works

of Charles Dickens, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 1910, pp. 8-9; and Augustus Ralli,

Guide to Carlyle, London, 1920, I, 270), but a distinction must be drawn

between a payment from the profits of sale and the purchase of the right

to reprint. Ticknor's seems to have been a copyright purchase.

9. The Boston Daily Evening Transcript of that date announced the

"beautiful edition" as "published this morning."

10. The steamship Britannia landed at Boston on June 18, and on June

20 Elizabeth Peabody advertised for sale at her book store "a small lot"

212 NOTES [Chapter II]

of the Poems "just received ... by the Britannia" (Boston Daily Adver-

tiser, June 18 and 20, 1842).

11. An anonymous reviewer in the Southern Literary Messenger (VIII,

612, Sept., 1842) thought that they compared more favorably with books

issued by the London press than any other American books he had ever seen.

12. New World, V, 63 (July 23, 1842).

13. MS letter, Wheeler to Emerson, June 11, 1842, Papers of the Ralph

Waldo Emerson Memorial Association.

14. William J. Rolfe (Tennyson's Works, I, 50) gives 1,500 as the size

of the first American edition; Derby (loc. cit.) gives 2,000. Figures on the

English editions are from Wise, op. cit., I, 80-81, 87.

15. Dated 1846, the edition was noticed as early as Nov. 22, 1845 {Broad-

way Journal, II, 307). For information concerning the American editions

of Tennyson, see Appendix A.

16. In May and June, 1843, Elizabeth Peabody advertised for sale at

her Boston book store a lot as just received by the steamship Hibernia

(Boston Daily Advertiser, May 6 ff.).

17. July 7 and August 15, 1842.

18. In its review on July 12, the New York Evening Post for the Country

announced the volumes for sale by Wiley and Putnam of New York. The

Post had reviewed the Poems as early as July 8, but since the reviewer spoke

of the "extracts which we have seen," apparently he had not seen the

volumes. '

19. V, 48 (July 16, 1842).

20. V. 63 (July 23, 1842). The New World had already reviewed the

English edition with high praise before the American reached its office

(V, 48, July 16, 1842).

21. By far the most popular selection was "Godiva." On June 18, before

the Poems of 1842 had reached New York in any edition, Brother Jonathan

was enabled "through the politeness of a friend" to present "Godiva" to

its readers (II, 213), and with that early start it spread through the news

sheets: Evening Post for the Country, July 8; Daily Tribune, July 12; Weekly

Tribune, July 16. For the newspaper popularity of "Godiva" outside of

New York, see Boston Morning Post, July 8; Washington Daily National

Intelligencer, Oct. 6; and Boston Daily Advertiser, Oct. 10.

22. See Lounsbury, op. cit., pp. 424-36. So stereotyped became the ex-

pression that Professor Lounsbury spoke of the reviewers as "echoing the

cuckoo cry."

23. Letter, Elizabeth Peabody to William J. Rolfe, 1884, quoted in Rolfe's

preface to Select Poems of Alfred Lord Tennyson (Boston, 1885), pp. v-vi.

24. XIV, 62-77 (J an -> 1 $44)- George William Curtis, who liked the re-

view, made an interesting comment upon it: "Perhaps she [Fanny Kemble]

is too masculine a woman to judge correctly his [Tennyson's] delicacy; but

she does the whole thing well" (letter to Dwight, March 27, 1844, in Early

Letters of George William Curtis to John S. Dwight, ed. George Willis

Cooke, New York and London, 1898, p. 162).

25. Rufus W. Griswold in Graham's Magazine (XXL, 152-53, Sept., 1842)

and anonymous reviewers in the Boston Miscellany of Literature and

Fashion (II, 140, Sept., 1842) and the Lady's World of Fashion (II, 114-17,

Oct., 1842) also expressed regret over the alterations of the early poems.

[Chapter II] NOTES 213

The Lady's World of Fashion thought that Tennyson had not "improved

with years": that "the best of his later poems display more finish, as

well as more compactness than the earlier ones cannot be doubted; but

much of the airy and seductive grace which charmed us in 'Madeline,'

'Mariana,' 'Adeline,' 'The Lotos-Eaters' and other poems is wanting in

the productions of his maturer years."

26. George William Curtis, "Editor's Easy Chair," Harper's New Monthly

Magazine, XXXVIII, 270 (Jan., 1869). Curtis, who lived for a while at

Brook Farm, was pleased to find in the 1842 volume that Nature had

confirmed his early judgment of Tennyson. Tennyson's songs, such as

"Break, Break, Break," had a charm like unto Shakespeare's. Letter to

Dwight, Sept. 1, 1843, in Early Letters of George William Curtis to John S.

Dwight, p. 109.

27. Ill, 273-76 (Oct., 1842). The review is unsigned, and George Willis

Cooke in his list of contributors (Historical and Biographical Introduction

to The Dial, II, 205) assigns it to Emerson. The review, however, is un-

doubtedly by Margaret Fuller. Elsewhere in his Introduction (II, 162),

Cooke himself refers to the review as Margaret Fuller's, and on October 16,

1842, she wrote to Emerson concerning two typographical errors which oc-

cur in the review, "I am a little vexed, having hoped my notice might

meet the eye of the poet" (Emerson's Letters, III, 91).

28. When she first saw these new poems she read herself into many of

them. "In Dora, Locksley Hall, The Two Voices, Morte D 'Arthur, I find

my own life, much of it, written truly out," she wrote Emerson in August,

1842 (Memoirs of Margaret Fuller Ossoli, ed. William H. Channing with

others, Boston, 1852, II, 66). Such an experience, however, was not un-

usual with her: as she read Shelley's journals for the first time she found

him "affected very much" as she was (MS letter, Margaret Fuller to Emer-

son, April 26, 1840. Papers of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Asso-


29. Emerson's Journals, VI, 218-19 (July, 1842). About the same time

Emerson jotted into his journals opposite the name of Tennyson such

phrases as "a cosmetic poet" and "tea tray style" (Sept. 26-Nov. 5, 1843,

and July 31-Nov. 23, 1846, MS journals O and U, Harvard College Library).

30. Journals, VI, 286-88 (Oct., 1842). Cf. Emerson's letter to Margaret

Fuller, July 19, 1842 (Emerson's Letters, III, 74).

31. Journals, VI, 219 (July, 1842), 244 (Sept., 1842).

32. HI, 517-18 (April, 1843). The article was headed "Europe and

European Books." It appeared also in the New York Daily Tribune (April

17, 1843), with the title "Wordsworth and Tennyson."

33. The omitted passage is a comparison of Tennyson's dainty fineness

to Ben Jonson's rude manliness. Emerson had drawn the comparison in

slightly different words as early as February, 1842. He seems to have thought

often of Tennyson and Jonson as opposite extremes (see Journals, VI, 158,

Jan.-Feb., 1842).

34. Undoubtedly, Poe gained his first knowledge of Tennyson from the

British periodicals, which he was reading continually and even contributing

to in the thirties (Phillips, op. cit., pp. 286-90, 590-92), but although Poe's

attitude toward Tennyson was directly opposed to their low estimate, he

seems never to have defended his favorite against them.

214 NOTES [Chapter II]

35. "William Ellery Charming," Graham's Magazine, XXIII, 113 (Aug.,

1843). See Poe's Works, XI, 174-90.

36. Broadway Journal, II, 26 (July 19, 1845). For the assignment of this

unsigned article entitled "Alfred Tennyson" to Poe, see Pope-Hennessy,

op. cit., p. 241.

37. "Marginalia," Democratic Review, XV, 580. Poe is speaking here on

a favorite topic. It is Tennyson's purity, "etherisity," and lack of passion,

said Poe, which "constitutes him one of the greatest geniuses that ever

lived" (Thomas Holley Chivers' account of a conversation with Poe in the

summer of 1845, quoted in George E. Woodberry, "The Poe-Chivers Pa-

pers," Century Magazine, LXV, 447, Jan., 1903). Poe referred to Tennyson's

poems again and again as tests of the reader's poetic sensibilities. "Oenone,"

he said, "exalts the soul not into passion, but into a conception of pure

beauty, which in its elevation — its calm and intense rapture — has in it a

foreshadowing of the future and spiritual life, and as far transcends earthly

passion as the holy radiance of the sun does the glimmering and feeble

phosphorescence of the glow-worm . . . [and] 'Morte D'Arthur' is in the

same majestic vein." If these poems stirred fewer readers than the passion-

ate poems of Byron, the fact proved nothing "more than that the majority

of mankind are more susceptible of the impulses of passion than of the

impressions of beauty" (a review of R. H. Home's Orion, Graham's Maga-

zine, XXIV, 137, March, 1844. Exactly the same discussion appeared also in

an unsigned article, "Increase of Poetical Heresy," probably by Poe, in

the New York Weekly Mirror, N. S., I, 281, Feb. 8, 1845).

38. Broadway Journal, II, 322 (Nov. 29, 1845). Though unsigned, the

notice is confidently assigned by biographers to Poe, the "sole editor and

proprietor" of the Journal. Longfellow clipped the notice from the Journal,

pasted it inside the cover of his copy of the Poems of 1842, and wrote be-

neath it "Edgar A. Poe." The book is now in the Craigie House.

39. The phrase floats about in Poe and Tennyson criticism, always with

quotation marks but without reference. Possibly it has its origin in Bayard

Taylor's well known essay on Tennyson {International Review, IV, 404,

May, 1877). Mary E. Phillips in her biography of Poe (p. 714) varies the

phrase but still uses the quotation marks: "the first to hai?. Alfred Tennyson

from across the sea." Miss Phillips has written to me in a letter of Novem-

ber 23, 1939, that she does not remember where she saw the expression.

40. International Review, IV, 404-05 (May, 1877).

41. Century Magazine, LXV, 447 (Jan., 1903).

42. Letter, Chivers to Poe, Sept. 9, 1845, in Poe's Works, XVII, 213. In

the last lines, Chivers is touching on his basic disagreement with Poe.

Chivers thought that sheer beauty was not enough, that it had to be com-

bined with Truth. Poe thought otherwise. It was natural that Tennyson's

early poems should divide them.

43. Letter, Chivers to Poe, Oct. 30, 1845, m Poe's Works, XVII, 220.

44. Felton had just read John Sterling's favorable review of the Poems of

1842 in the London Quarterly (LXX, 385-416, Sept., 1842), was displeased

that the Quarterly should have shifted its position as established in the

earlier Croker review, and was determined not to follow suit (see Christian

Examiner, XXXIII, 237-38, Nov., 1842). Felton's reference to Sterling's

article as a "highly laudatory critique" is puzzling now to anyone who

[Chapter II] NOTES 215

reads the review. It was often spoken of as highly commendatory, but it

was largely noncommittal — at best, mildly favorable.

45. In 1837 Felton, Longfellow, Charles Sumner, George S. Hillard, and

Henry R. Cleveland formed a strong friendship and called themselves the

"Five of Clubs." They "took a constant interest in each other's studies,"

and each "sought the criticism of the rest upon his own book, essay, or

poem before it was given to the public" (Edward L. Pierce, Memoir and

Letters of Charles Sumner, Boston, 1877, I, 161-62). Cleveland died in 1843,

but the other four continued their close association for several years

thereafter (ibid., Ill, 49). That Longfellow was an early admirer of Tenny-

son, we have already seen; Sumner warmly welcomed the Poems of 1842

(letter to Milnes, Aug. 1, 1842, in T. Wemyss Reid, The Life, Letters, and

Friendships of Richard Monckton Milnes, New York, 1891, I, 279-80); and

a few years later Hillard wrote a poem upon his reading of Tennyson which

Ticknor and Fields printed in the front of their "Blue and Gold" editions.

46. X, 240-46 (April, 1844). Edward Sculley Bradley (Henry Charles Lea,

Philadelphia, 1931, p. 70) assigns the review to Lea.

47. VIII, 612 (Sept., 1842).

48. In August, 1842 (XX, 208), it "read them with admiration, not un-

mixed with tears" and thought they had "a pathos sweet and winning,"

and "melody of versification almost faultless." It would give the volumes

"more elaborate justice" later. But by December (XX, 582) it had read

Fel ton's review in the Examiner and quoted the most abusive passages as

expressing its "own opinion" exactly. Then in June, 1845 (XXV, 534-40)

it published a laudatory review which Charles A. Bristed, an American

student at Cambridge University, had contributed.

49. An anonymous reviewer of Home's A Neiu Spirit of the Age in

Graham's Magazine (XXV, 47, July, 1844) recommended Home's laudatory

chapter on Tennyson "particularly to our pleasant friend who 'does' the

damning for the Southern Literary Messenger."

50. Philadelphia, 1845, P- 445- Griswold's biographical account evalu-

ated Tennyson very much as his review in Graham's (XXI, 152-53, Sept.,

1842) had done. Tennyson excelled most in his female portraitures, but

they were too intangible. Tennyson showed at times a talent for graphic

description, but he lacked creative power. In view of this estimate, it is

interesting to note that Tennyson ranked fifth in the amount of space

devoted to him in the anthology. Only Elizabeth Barrett, Wordsworth,

Shelley, and Byron were given more space.

51. See Ladies' National Magazine (VII, 71, Feb., 1845), an d belated

reviews of the 1853 edition in Presbyterian Quarterly Review (VI, 656,

March, 1858) and Russell's Magazine (V, 542, Sept., 1859). That Griswold

had changed his mind in the meantime is shown by a quotation from him

which Ticknor, Reed, and Fields used in their advertising in 1850: "Of

the living poets of England — we include not the few choice spirits of

Scotland — Tennyson at this time occupies the highest rank, and he is des-

tined to a wide and high regard" (advertisement of Tennyson's Complete

Poetical Works enclosed in the back of most issues of In Memoriam for


52. II, 45-48 (July, 1845). The Tennyson criticism is contained in a

twenty-nine page review of The Poets and Poetry of England in the Nine-

2i6 NOTES [Chapter II]

teenth Century. Poe several times took occasion to praise this critique as

one of the most appreciative reviews accorded Tennyson by an American

(Broadway Journal, II, 26, July 19, 1845; and Graham's Magazine, XXXVI,

49, Jan., 1850). The review was republished in Whipple's Essays and Re-

views (New York, 1849), I, 338-46.

53. Ill, 57-66 (Jan., 1845). The General Index gives Luzerne Ray as the

author. Ray (1811-1854) was a minor poet of Connecticut.

54. IV, 91-93 (August, 1845). The review was republished in Tucker-

man's Thoughts on the Poets (New York, 1846, pp. 273-80), and since the

book circulated widely — a new edition was called for in 1848 — , the essay

on Tennyson doubtless played a significant part in making the poems


55. XXV, 534-40 (June, 1845).

56. I, 395 (Sept., 1842). Probably the review was written by William C.

Richards, the Orion's English-born editor.

57. Lea's MS journal quoted in Bradley, op. cit., p. 70.

58. Newspapers frequently reviewed individual numbers of the British

magazines and sometimes evaluated the reviews of Tennyson's Poems. The

Boston Morning Post (Oct. 20 and Nov. 7, 1842) thought John Sterling's

review in the Quarterly (LXX, 385-416, Sept., 1842) poorly written but

just, and Richard Monckton Milnes' review in the Westminster Review

(LXXVIII, 371-90, Oct., 1842) only fair. The New York Daily Tribune

(Oct. 19, 1842) thought Sterling's article "discriminating, sympathetic, and

written with lofty strength." The New World (V, 288, Oct. 29, 1842; VI,

668, June 3) called Milnes' article "weak and common place" but liked

James Spedding's review in the Edinburgh Review (LXXVII, 373-91,

April, 1843). F° r the eclectic magazine's reprints of Tennyson reviews, see

Appendix C.

59. Democratic Review, XIV, 62 (Jan., 1844).

60. Probably those in the Examiner (No. 1791, pp. 340-41, May 28, 1842)

and T ait's Edinburgh Magazine (N.S., IX, 502-08, August, 1842) gave

highest praise. The review in the Examiner is attributed to John Forster

(Lounsbury, op. cit., p. 419).

61. Many magazine articles deplored the lack of thoughtful American

criticism (see Evert A. Duyckinck, "Criticism in America," Arcturus, VII,

401-06, May, 1842; and an article with the same title by W. A. Jones,

Democratic Review, XV, 241-49, Sept., 1844). Daniel K. Whitaker, editor

of the Southern Literary Journal, wrote in 1836 an article, "The Puffing

System," to condemn "the practice of indiscriminate praise which charac-

terizes the periodical press of our country" (S.L.J., II, 312-15, June, 1836),

and Horace Greeley's New Yorker (VII, 45, April 6, 1839) pled for a

"proper mean" in American criticism: "hyperbolical puffing must give way

to the calm expressions of judgement."

62. "In a word, we think that he [Tennyson] would find himself able to

fly a higher flight than lyric, idyl, or eclogue, and we counsel him to try it"

(Examiner, No. 1791, p. 340, May 28, 1842). "His command of diction is

complete, his sense and execution of the harmonies of verse accurate and

admirable; he has only to show that he has substance worthy of these

media . . . that, in fine, he comprehends the function of the poet in this

day of ours, to teach still more than he delights, and to suggest still more

[Chapter II] NOTES 217

than he teaches" (Westminster Review, XXXVIII, 390, Oct., 1842). "Powers

are displayed in these volumes, adequate, if we do not deceive ourselves,

to the production of a great work" (Edinburgh Review, LXXVII, 390, April,


63. Letter to John Sullivan Dwight, Feb. 25, 1844, in Early Letters of Cur-

tis to Dwight, p. 150.

64. Two separate editions were published in New York in 1844, one DV

Harper & Brothers and the other by J. C. Riker.

65. Southern Literary Messenger, X, 620 (Oct., 1844).

66. XXV, 47 (July, 1844).

67. Published in London in 1847 and republished by Harper & Brothers

in New York the same year. The book remained popular for years. In

August, 1857, Russell's Magazine (I, 474) reviewed a new English edition,

quoted from the chapter on Tennyson, and called it "capital criticism."

68. Longfellow, Margaret Fuller, and Charles Stearns Wheeler had hoped

to see him on earlier trips abroad, but in each case circumstances had in-

tervened (see Samuel Longfellow, Life of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow,

Boston, 1886, I, 434-35, and Memoirs of Margaret Fuller Ossoli, II, 190).

In August, 1842, soon after completion of his editing of Tennyson's Poems,

Wheeler sailed for Europe, leaving Lowell to care for Tennyson's interests

if any matters should arise requiring an agent for the author — in a letter

of Nov. 14, 1842, to John Francis Heath, Wheeler referred to Lowell as

serving in such a capacity, and when Tennyson wrote Wheeler that Ticknor

had not sent him a copy of the American edition, Wheeler wrote Lowell,

on Nov. 24, 1842, to have Ticknor send one at once (MS letters, Harvard

College Library). Soon after Wheeler reached Europe, Tennyson wrote him

a long and friendly letter wishing him pleasant travels and inviting him

to England: "I ought not to forget that your bond with England is nearer

and dearer than with Greece or Italy. . . . When do you intend to visit

England? You must give me a little notice beforehand, or I may be out of

the way, & I should be sorry to miss the pleasure of seeing you" (MS letter,

November ?, 1842, Widener Collection, Harvard College Library). Wheeler

proudly quoted from this letter in his correspondence with friends back

home (see MS letters to Emerson, Nov. 11, 1842, and to Lowell, Nov. 24,

1842, Harvard College Library), and to one, he wrote in November, 1842,

"I count on a very kind reception from him some eighteen months hence"

(unidentified letter quoted in Davis, op. cit., p. 10). This expectation was

never realized, for Wheeler died suddenly in Heidelberg, Germany, on

June 13, 1843.

69. In a letter of August 5, 1844, Carlyle described Tennyson's physical

features and personal habits at length, and on September 30, Emerson

replied, "The sketch you drew of Tennyson was right welcome, for he is

an old favorite of mine, — I owned his book before I saw your face; —

though I love him with allowance. O cherish him with love and praise,

and draw from him whole books full of new verses yet" (Correspondence

of Carlyle and Emerson, II, 66-68, 76). Henry Reed's knowledge of Tenny-

son came through letters from Wordsworth, with whom Reed corresponded

regularly in the early 1840's (see Wordsworth & Reed, ed. Leslie Nathan

Broughton, Ithaca, N. Y., 1933, pp. 144, 148).

70. See MS letters, Wheeler to Lowell, Nov. 8, 1842 (James Russell Lowell

2i8 NOTES [Chapter II]

Collection, Harvard College Library), and Wheeler to Emerson, Nov. 11,

1842 (Papers of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association).

71. Published in London in 1846 and republished by Carey & Hart of

Philadelphia the same year. The poem was published anonymously, but

soon the name of the author was widely known.

72. Philadelphia, Carey & Hart, 1847.

73. "Poetry and Imagination," XLII, 263 (March, 1847). A review of

The New Timon in the Washington Daily National Intelligencer for May

17, 1847, a ^ so approved. It spoke of the author's "just aversion" to Tenny-

son's "namby-pamby" poetry.

74. LXIV, 467 (April, 1847).

75. Anonymous review of The New Timon, XIII, 84 (Feb., 1847). For

other protests against The New Timon and strong approvals of Tennyson's

pension, see Littell's Living Age, VIII, 16 (Jan., 1846), and the Democratic

Review, XIX, 317 (Oct., 1846).

76. I, 69 (Jan. 15, 1842). Cf. George Cruikshank's Omnibus, VIII, 260

(Dec, 1841). The parody, entitled "The Clerk," was prefaced by a para-

graph (from Cruikshank's Omnibus) praising "Mariana at the Moated

Grange" and assuring readers that no irreverence to the beautiful poem

was intended.

77. XXI, 189 (Feb., 1843). The parody was taken from Tait's Edinburgh

Magazine (N. S., IX, 803, Dec, 1842), but the Knickerbocker, at the moment

under the spell of Felton (see above), wrote an introduction of its own:

"The annexed stanzas . . . introduce us to that nice dandy-poet, Mr. Al-

fred Tennyson; a little man, who writes with little thought in a little room

on a little piece of paper." "To Isaac Tomkins' Child" is not a harsh par-

ody. The Boston Daily Evening Transcript for December 11, 1854, quoted

it as an example of one having less caricature than most of Bon Gaultier's.

78. When Robert Southey died in 1843, Tennyson was among the poets

considered for the laureateship. For Tait's Edinburgh Magazine for May

(N. S., X, 273-76), Bon Gaultier wrote "Lays of the Would-Be Laureates,"

supposed petitions for the honor written by the various aspirants. Tenny-

son's was "The Laureate." It was both clever and genial. Several American

newspapers reprinted it at once (Boston Daily Advertiser, July 10, 1843, and

Washington Daily National Intelligencer, July 13, 1843), and it became


79. New York: J. S. Redfield. Neither Roorbach's Bibliotheca Americana

nor the Union Catalogue of the Library of Congress lists an earlier edition.

80. See Albion, 4th Ser., XI, 153 (March 27, 1852); XIII, 244 (May 27,

1854); Sartain's Magazine, X, 437-38 (May, 1852); and the Boston Daily

Evening Transcript, Jan. 9, 1855.

81. X, 438 (May, 1852).

82. xviii, 429-33 (J"iy. l8 52).

83. Some fun is made of Tennyson in advertisements and in what were

called "patchworks" — individual lines from many different poems pieced

together to form one — , but neither of these are worth considering (see

"Claribelle" in advertisement of Smith Brothers, Clothiers, New York

Daily Tribune, March 15, 1858; see "patchworks" in Putnam's Monthly

Magazine, IX, 439-43, April, 1857, and in San Francisco Evening Bulletin,

Oct. 30, 1857). I n an article entitled "Puffs and Poetry," Bon Gaultier had

[Chapter III] NOTES 219

in October, 1843 (Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, N. S., X, 649-54), parodied

several poems as advertisements of various wares. Brother Jonathan (VI,

228-32, Oct. 28, 1843) reprinted the article. In it, parts of "Morte d'Arthur"

were made into an advertisement of Mechi's steel razors.

84. Godey's Lady's Book, XXV, 275 (Dec, 1842). The poem was signed

"J. Tomlin, Esq., Jackson Tennessee."

85. American Whig Review, IV, 117-18 (August, 1846). The poem (98

lines in all) was entitled "Emily, Some Memories in the Glass of Tennyson."

When it was reprinted in Parker's collected Poems (Auburn, N.Y., 1850,

pp. 137-40), "Emily" was changed to "Floralie" in the title and throughout

the poem.

86. Far the most popular of the few parodies by Americans was "Eagle

Ye Second," by "G. Whilikins" (see New York Independent, X, 1, June 3,

1858; St. Louis Daily Missouri Republican, June 14, 1858; Harper's Weekly,

II, 462, July 17, 1858; etc.). Incidentally, Anna Cora Mowatt's comedy,

Fashion; or Life in Neic York, first acted in New York in 1845, contained

a. character, "T. Tennyson Twinkle, a Modern Poet"; but in the play

neither his acting nor his quoted verses burlesqued Tennyson.

87. See reviews by Margaret Fuller (New York Daily Tribune, Jan. 4,

1845), Poe (Broadway Journal, I, 17-20, Jan. 11, 1845), Henry Charles Lea

{Southern Literary Messenger, XI, 236-37, April, 1845), Charles A. Bristed

(Knickerbocker, XXV, 540-42, June, 1845), etc.

88. Broadway Journal, I, 17-20 (Jan. 11, 1845).

89. Southern Literary Messenger, XI, 341-42 (June, 1845).

Chapter III

1. The Boston Daily Evening Transcript had announced on February 9

that Ticknor & Company would publish The Princess "this afternoon."

2. Samuel Longfellow, op. cit., II, 109. Professor Thomas R. Lounsbury

(op. cit., pp. 557-58) felt that Longfellow must have been mistaken and

that Fields must have told him of the sale of "some new edition of the

'Poems' previously published," and not of The Princess; but Professor

Lounsbury's belief is based on two errors: first, that "there is no record of

the publication of the work [The Princess] in this country before the middle

of February," and second, that Longfellow's entry in the journal was "un-

der date of January 25." Intervening material between quotations from

the journal in Samuel Longfellow's Life, to which Professor Lounsbury

refers, makes the dating of the entry uncertain, but the entry in the MS

journal (Craigie House Papers) closely follows another marked February

15, showing that the month is February and not January. Although the

interval is short, there is no reason why Ticknor could not have known by

February 25 that he would need more copies of The Princess, which he had

published on February 9.

3. I have seen or had minute descriptions of six copies of Ticknor's edi-

tion dated 1848, and the only differences found were in various sheets of

advertisements bound at the beginning and at the end. The size, pagination,

and text do not vary. It seems, therefore, that the word in Graham's and in

Longfellow's journal should be impressions and not editions, but that

220 NOTES [Chapter III]

Ticknor printed from his original plate several times in 1848 seems beyond


4. The Boston Daily Evening Transcript for September 4, 1848, an-

nounced the "new and enlarged edition . . . including 'The Princess' "

as published "today."

5. See Wise, op. cit., I, 99-104.

6. Although a dozen copies of Ticknor's edition of Poems dated 1851,

1852, and 1853, have been checked, none has been found containing a

later version of The Princess than the first London edition. The Poems

dated 1854 but reviewed as early as September, 1853 {Graham's Magazine,

XLIII, 336), contained The Princess printed from the fourth London edi-

tion of April, 1851.

7. Ticknor and Fields's "Blue and Gold" pocket edition of the Poems

of that date contained The Princess with all the additions and emendations

of the fifth London edition. The chief difference between the fourth and

the fifth editions was the addition in the fifth of the fourteen-line section

in the Prologue beginning "O miracle of women."

8. February 11, 1848. The review was signed "S."

9. February 14, 1848. Since Margaret Fuller was contributing to the

Tribune from Europe at this time, this review may be hers; however, that

is quite unlikely. Such contributions were usually headed "By our foreign

correspondent," and this is not so marked.

10. XIII, 155 (April, 1848).

11. XXXII, 300 (May, 1848).

12. I, 79 (Nov., 1848).

13. Massachusetts Quarterly Review, I, 257 (March, 1848). The review is

unsigned; for its assignment to Lowell, see Scudder, op. cit., II, 429.

14. Literary World, III, 61-62 (Feb. 26, 1848). Incidentally, the reviewer

was "speaking out" against a statement which his own journal had quoted

with strong approval two weeks earlier (III, 28). For the review in the

Examiner, see No. 2084, pp. 20-21 (Jan. 8, 1848).

15. Harbinger, VI, 158 (March 18, 1848). Theodore Winthrop, minor

New England poet and novelist, the following year expressed the same

opinion concerning Tennyson's change. Upon re-reading Tennyson with

pleasure in 1849, Winthrop wrote into his journal: "He has exquisite power

over language, and his poems have blood in them, and are really classic"

(The Life and Poems of Theodore Winthrop Edited by His Sister [Laura

Winthrop Johnson], New York, 1884, p. 26).

16. See Leonora Cranch Scott, The Life and Letters of Christopher Pearse

Cranch (Boston and New York, 1917), pp. 156-61. For the poem, see Cranch 's

The Bird and the Bell with Other Poems (Boston, 1875), pp. 1-22. Cranch

was one of the early transcendentalist admirers of Tennyson. In 1844 he

painted a scene from "The Lady of Shalott" (see letter, Curtis to Dwight,

March 27, 1844, in Early Letters of George William Curtis to John S.

Dwight, p. 162).

17. The Bird and the Bell with Other Poems, pp. 283-84.

18. "The Poetic Principle." This famous lecture of Poe's, which he de-

livered at least twice in 1848 (see Phillips, op. cit., p. 1313), was first pub-

lished in the Home Journal, August 31, 1850. It is republished in Works,

XIV, 266-92. Incidentally, biographers and editors of Poe give Sartain's

[Chapter III] NOTES 22 1

Union Magazine, VII, 231-39 (Oct., 1850), as the earliest publication of

"The Poetic Principle," but the Home Journal published it in full more

than a month earlier "from advance sheets of the new vol. by Mr. Poe, in

the press of Mr. [J. S.] Redfield."

19. "The Late Edgar A. Poe," Southern Literary Messenger, XV, 696

(Nov., 1849).

20. See J. F. A. Pyre, The Formation of Tennyson's Style (Madison, Wis.,

i 9 2i), pp. 174-79-

81. Journal, Feb. 7, 1848, quoted in Samuel Longfellow, op. cit., II, 106.

James T. Fields had lent Longfellow a copy of the English edition. Thus

Longfellow was privileged to read the poem before its publication in Amer-

ica (see ibid.).

22. Letter to Mary Agnew, February 13, 1848, quoted in Marie Hansen -

Taylor and Horace E. Scudder, Life and Letters of Bayard Taylor (Boston,

1884), I, 119.

23. The Living Authors of England (New York, 1849), PP- 55 _ 59- Some

idea of the appeal of Powell's book may be gained from an enthusiastic

letter written him by James Mathewes Legare, a total stranger, soon after

its publication. Legare added the "fresh masterly" volume to the limited

number of his "pet-books," and had not words with which to express his

esteem for this "pleasant, brilliant, and critically accurate" work (MS letter,

Nov. 26, 1849, Boston Public Library).

24. II, 275 (May, 1848).

25. XIV, 264 (April, 1848).

26. F. M. Finch, "A Frolic with Tennyson," Yale Literary Magazine, XIV,

112-22 (Jan., 1849).

27. Literary World, III, 61 (Feb. 26, 1848).

28. American Literary Magazine, II, 275-81 (May, 1848).

29. "The Sphere of Woman," Sartain's Union Magazine, II, 270-73 (June,


30. The most quoted seems to have been the lines from Part VII beginning

For woman is not undeveloped man,

But diverse.

See Godey's Lady's Book, XL, 75 (Jan., 1850); Henry Reed, Lectures on

English Literature, from Chaucer to Tennyson (Philadelphia, 1855), pp.

46-47; Peterson's Magazine, XXVII, 23-24 (Jan., 1855); Graham's Magazine,

L, 269 (March, 1857); etc.

31. August 20, 1853. Religious periodicals offered some of the best ex-

amples of Americans' reading into Tennyson's poems whatever they wished

to find. The Methodist Quarterly Review (XXXIV, 359, July, 1852) had an

unusually good one: The Princess was "designed to convey the prophetic

anticipation of a better age, already knocking at our door, when the su-

premacy of intellect, which has caused our present confusion, shall in con-

sequence of its own restoration to health, give place to the nobler dominion

of religious sentiment and moral duty."

32. XIII, 155 (April, 1848).

33. Yale Literary Magazine, XIV, 122 (Jan., 1849). An interesting reaction

of a different sort came from another college student. The anonymous

author of an article "Musings by Lamplight" in the Nassau Literary Maga-

222 NOTES [Chapter III]

zine (VIII, 116, Dec, 1848), Princeton College student publication, had also

had a reverie with The Princess but thought it too "metaphysical" and had

rather read "Evangeline" instead.

34. I, 78-79 (Nov., 1848).

35. Professor Lounsbury, who made a careful study of the British criti-

cism of the poem, summarized the British reaction: "Never was greater

reluctance to accept a work as the author designed it more pronounced and

more violently proclaimed than in the sort of welcome with which 'The

Princess' was greeted at its first appearance. Stupid as well as malignant

criticism fell to Tennyson's lot. ... In general, it ranged all the way

from semi-approval to positive condemnation" (op. cit., pp. 540-41).

36. ". . . until we took up the little book before us, we had no idea of

meeting with anything so bizarre, indeed grotesque, as this correctly enough

named 'medley' " (Eclectic Review, 4th Ser., XXIII, 415-16, March, 1848).

"Mr. Tennyson has here engrafted the weaknesses and affectations of the

Cockney school upon the worst peculiarities of his own style; he has chosen

a subject which is narrow, uninteresting, unnatural, and absurd, not to

say offensive in itself . . . namby-pamby is the true characteristic of the

execution. There is a forced simplicity which is flat and literal; an affecta-

tion of nature, which produces nothing natural" (Spectator, XXI, 41-42,

Jan. 8, 1848; this excerpt was quoted in the Boston Daily Evening Tran-

script, Feb. ii, 1848).

37. "Lecture Rooms and chivalric lists, modern pedantry and ancient

romance, are antagonisms which no art can reconcile. With the power

which Mr. Tennyson has here evinced for the familiar and the ideal re-

garded separately, it is much to be deplored that by their unskilful com-

bination he has produced simply — the grotesque" (Athenaeum, No. 1053,

p. 8, Jan. 1, 1848). "Why does he not assume his mission? Why does he dis-

credit it with trifling and with puerilities unworthy of him? .... In the

Princess we have more decisive evidence of his powers for a sustained and

solid exercise of poetry than has heretofore been given. But it is yet only

an omen for the future. Its glorious promise has yet to be fulfilled" (Ex-

aminer, No. 2084, p. 21, Jan. 8, 1848).

38. "The second title of this lively performance points out its principal

defect; it is a medley, and, we must think, a somewhat incongruous one"

(Quarterly Review, LXXXII, 445, March, 1848). "His very title-page de-

clares 'The Princess' to be a 'Medley.' In the Prologue we have this avowal

in detail. . . . But this consciousness of an eccentric plan can scarcely ex-

cuse it. We fancy that the Prologue is in reality an apologetic supplement.

If so, there is hope that an error spontaneously discerned and confessed will

in future be avoided" (Athenaeum, No. 1053, p. 7, Jan. 1, 1848).

39. ". . . may we yet expect from him some more prolonged strain, some

work fully commensurate to the undoubted powers he possesses? It were

in vain to prophesy. This last performance, The Princess, took, we be-

lieve, his admirers by surprise. It was not exactly what they had ex-

pected from him — not of so high an order. Judging by some intimations

he himself has given us, we should not be disposed to anticipate any

such effort from Mr. Tennyson. Should he, however, contradict this

anticipation, no one will welcome the future epic, or drama, or story, or

whatever it may be, more cordially than ourselves" (Blackwood's Edin-

[Chapter III] NOTES 223

burgh Magazine, LXV, 467, April, 1849). "We only regret that so much

wealth has been lavished upon a subject which we cannot but think

was hardly worthy of it. . . . We hope some day to welcome from his

pen a work which shall combine them all [Tennyson's talents], with yet

higher reach than he has attempted" (Sharpe's London Magazine, VI, 141,

April, 1848).

40. Reviews in Howitt's Journal (III, 28-29, Jan. 8, 1848) and the Gentle-

man's Magazine (N. S., XXIX, 115-31, Feb., 1848) were favorable.

41. "A Talk about the Princess," American Review: A Whig Journal,

VIII, 28-39 (July, 1848).

42. Massachusetts Quarterly Review, I, 256-59 (March, 1848).

43. New Englander, VII, 193-215 (May, 1849). This unsigned review was

included in Hadley's Essays Philological and Critical (New York, 1873),

pp. 276-324. Three lengthy passages are quoted verbatim from the re-

view of The Princess in the North British Review, IX, 43-72 (May, 1848),

and numbers of paraphrased criticisms could come from any one of

several of the unfavorable British reviews already referred to, especially

that in the London Quarterly Review, LXXXII, 427-53 (March, 1848).

44. See Aubrey de Vere's review in the Edinburgh Review (XC, 388-404,

Oct., 1849); Charles Kingsley's in Eraser's Magazine (XLII, 245-55, Sept.,

1850); etc.

45. See the Knickerbocker , XXV, 183-84 (Feb., 1845) and XXVIII, 174-

75 (Aug., 1846). The Knickerbocker never tired of felicitating itself upon

having given Dempster the suggestion (see the "Editor's Table," XXIX,

380 (April, 1847); XLIX, 532 (May, 1857); and LIV, 553 (Nov., 1859).

46. The work was sold in four different forms: the three parts bound

together, and each part bound separately as an individual piece. It was

entered for copyright in April 9, 1845, an d Ditson reissued the work

several times in 1845 and 1846. For a description of this and other Ameri-

can editions of Tennyson sheet music, see Appendix A.

47. XXVI, 590 (Dec, 1845), and XXVIII, 175 (Aug., 1846).

48. Reporters of the concerts almost invariably described "The May

Queen" as the most memorable number on the program. In Charleston,

South Carolina, it was "the treat of the evening" ("a Charleston journal"

quoted in the "Editor's Table," Knickerbocker, XXXVIII, 77, July, 1851);

in a New York asylum for the blind, it was by far the "most touching

of all" Dempster's songs {Knickerbocker , XXX, 548, Dec, 1847); an( ^ after

a concert in Brooklyn, "its thrilling lines" lingered in the ear and the

heart of a reporter and "would not away" (New York Independent, IX,

1, March 12, 1857). See also Albion, 3rd Ser., IV, 239 (May 17, 1845);

Anglo-American, X, 20 (Oct. 23, 1847); etc.

49. The Knickerbocker warned its readers: "It's great popularity has in-

duced other vocalists to take it up; but reader, do you hear Mr. Dempster

sing it, if you would have justice done to it" (XXV, 470, May, 1845). On

a tour of England and Scotland in 1845 and 1846, Abby Hutchinson sang

"The May Queen" on every program, often being forced to repeat it be-

cause of the applause with which it was greeted (John Wallace Hutchin-

son, Story of the Hutchinsons, Boston, 1896, I, 174, 186, 208-09). It was

her singing at Grasmere which caused Hartley Coleridge to write his

sonnet, "To Alfred Tennyson," expressing the wish that the author could

224 NOTES [Chapter III]

have heard his lines embalmed in such perfect music (ibid., 208-09).

Tennyson regretted that he did not hear the Hutchinsons when they

were in England (Memoir, I, 239).

50. Clark devoted three pages of his "Editor's Table" to the poem in

March, 1844, and frequently reprimanded reviewers and anthologists, in-

cluding Rufus W. Griswold, for not giving the poem more attention

(Knickerbocker, XXIII, 291-93, March, 1844; an d XXIV, 594, Dec, 1844).

Three-fourths of the review of the 1842 Poems in the Christian Parlor

Magazine for December, 1844 (I, 231-35) was devoted to "The May


51. "Music in Boston," Harbinger, II, 77 (Jan. 10, 1846).

52. Dempster sang his cantata before Tennyson himself, and Tennyson

is said to have remarked with tears in his eyes that not until that mo-

ment had he felt the full effect of his own lines (Knickerbocker, XXIX,

380, April, 1847). John Sullivan Dwight's own Journal of Music con-

fessed in 1858 that "Dempster's genius" had "contributed largely to the

popularity of Tennyson's beautiful ballad, the 'May Queen' " (unsigned

notice of Dempster's Songs and Ballads, XIV, 296, Dec. 11, 1858). For

an interesting though unconvincing suggestion that Washington Irving's

"Pride of the Village" in The Sketch Book may have suggested to Tenny-

son the plot of "The May Queen," see D. Barron Brightwell, "Tennyson

and Washington Irving," Notes and Queries, 5th Ser., XII, 65 (July 26,


53. See Harbinger, VI, 115 (Feb. 12, 1848); Saturday Evening Post, Sept.

14, 1850; Knickerbocker, XXXVIII, 410 (Oct., 1851); Dwight's Journal of

Music, I, 74 (June 12, 1852); etc.

54. Review of In Memoriam, Southern Literary Messenger, XVI, 688

(Nov., 1850). The review was signed "E. C"; for its doubtful assignment

to Cooke, see David K. Jackson, The Contributors and Contributions to

The Southern Literary Messenger (Charlottesville, Va., 1936), p. 101. In-

cidentally, Colonel J. T. L. Preston, husband of Margaret Junkin Pres-

ton, published an entire article on the song in October, 1867 (Land We

Love, Charlotte, N. C, monthly, III, 470-75).

55. Tennyson's name on the title page was spelled Tenneyson. The line

forming the title, which is not contained in Tennyson's poem, was written

by Woodbury and inserted as a refrain at the close of each of Tennyson's

four stanzas. Woodbury also made two minor changes of wording within

the stanzas.

56. "Death-Verses: A Stroll through the Valley of the Shadow of Death

with Tennyson . . . ," American Whig Review, XIII, 536 (June, 1851).

This review of In Memoriam was signed "J. S."

57. In all probability, more than a hundred different American publica-

tions printed the songs before their inclusion in an American edition.

From 1850 to 1852 they are found galore. Sometimes in groups and some-

times singly, they bore such headings as "New Songs by Tennyson,"

"Overlooked Novelties," "Poems by Tennyson Which Have Not Yet Ap-

peared in this Country," etc. See New York Daily Tribune, Dec. 14, 1850;

Literary World, VII, 482 (Dec. 14, 1850); Boston Daily Evening Transcript,

Dec. 16, 1850; Holden's Dollar Magazine, VII, 173 (April, 1851); Dwight's

Journal of Music, I, 18 (April 24, 1852); etc.

[Chapter IV] NOTES 225

58. "The Poetry of California," Pioneer, I, 26 (Jan. 1854). Ewer called

his magazine the first "periodical of a purely literary type" in the far

West (Pioneer, I, 1, Jan., 1854).

59. See New York Musical Review and Gazette, VII, 116 (April 19, 1856).

60. According to Mr. J. Francis Driscoll of Brookline, Massachusetts,

copies are still easy to find. In his enormous collection of American sheet

music, he has two copies. The Library of Congress, The Harvard College

Library, and The Boston Public Library own copies. Published by Oliver

Ditson of Boston, the copies, apparently all exactly alike, listed five agents

throughout the country.

61. Albion, 4th Ser., X, 579 (Dec. 6, 1851).

62. Review of Poems by Alexander Smith, Graham's Magazine, XLIII,

111 (July, 1853). The review is unsigned, but the Literary World (XII,

547-48, July 9, 1853) in reprinting parts of it tagged the excerpts, "From

a subtle review from the pen of E. P. Whipple, in Graham's Magazine for

July." Whipple was writing reviews for Graham's at the time (Mott, op. cit.,

I, 553), and internal evidence would give the review to him. The review

contained several derogatory digressions concerning Philip James Bailey's

Festus, Whipple's pet aversion.

63. XLIII, 336 (Sept., 1853).

64. MS journal, Aug. 22, 1851, Craigie House Papers.

65. Quoted below.

Chapter IV

1. Letter to his mother, 1850, quoted in Letters and Journals of Thomas

Wentworth Higginson, pp. 32-33. Higginson had got his information from

his Harvard friend, William Henry Hurlbut, just returned from a visit to

England (see ibid., pp. 29-32).

2. MS letter in the Craigie House Papers. For calling my attention to

this item, I am indebted to Mr. J. Lee Harlan, Jr., Columbia University

graduate student.

3. The London Times for June 3 announced it to be ready by June 8.

4. MS letter, Duyckinck Collection, New York Public Library.

5. Copies of two separate impressions have been seen. Alike in size and

pagination, one was marked as printed by Metcalf & Co. of Cambridge

and the other by Hobart & Robbins of Boston. For information con-

cerning the American editions, see Appendix A.

6. Moxon's first edition numbered five thousand copies, and by Janu-

ary, 1851, a fourth edition had been issued (Wise, op. cit., I, 108-13). In

a letter to me dated Sept. 21, 1940, the Houghton Mifflin Company lists

eight issues of Ticknor, Reed, and Fields's first edition of In Memoriam

through 1855. No information is available concerning the first four, but

the others are listed as numbering five hundred copies each.

7. See Literary World, VII, 12-13 (July 6, 1850); Boston Daily Evening

Transcript, July 9 and 13, 1850; New York Daily Tribune, July 9, 1850;

Saturday Evening Post, July 27, 1850; etc.

8. I, 34 (July 8, 1850); cf. Spectator, XXIII, 546 (June 8, 1850). Littell's

Living Age (XXVI, 167-71) reprinted the same review and also one from

the London Examiner (No. 2188, pp. 356-57, June 8, 1850) in its issue

226 NOTES [Chapter IV]

dated July 27 but advertised as ready for sale much earlier (see Washing-

ton Daily National Intelligencer, July 17, 1850, and New York Independ-

ent, July 18, 1850).

9. July 22, 1850.

10. Letter to George H. Boker, Dec. 17, 1850, in Hansen-Taylor and

Scudder, op. cit., I, 197.

11. Letter to Lord Morpeth, April 8, 1851, quoted in Pierce, op. cit.,

Ill, 76.

12. See Letter to Charles Eliot Norton, Aug. 11, 1855, in Lowell's Works,

XIV, 311. Lowell contrasted In'Memoriam and one of his favorites, "Maud."

See also Tennyson and His Friends, ed. Hallam, Lord Tennyson (London,

1 9 11 )» P- 358.

13. Journals, VIII, 163 (Jan. 1-14, 1851). Cf. Moncure Daniel Conway,

Emerson at Home and Abroad (Boston, 1882), p. 359: "The Work of

Tennyson he [Emerson] liked least was 'In Memoriam.' "

14. Reed, op. cit., p. 324.

15. XVI, 48 (Jan., 1851). Poole's Index to Periodical Literature assigns

this unsigned review of In Memoriam to George P. Fisher, Yale theologian.

16. Monthly Religious Magazine, X, 152 (April, 1853). The review was

signed "F."

17. XVI, 690 (Nov., 1850).

18. VII, 539-40 (Oct., 1850). The International Weekly Miscellany, which

did not like Tennyson (see I, 34, July, 1850), reprinted the harshest parts

of the review on November 1, 1850 (I, 477).

19. The twenty-volume Works of Orestes A. Brownson, edited by his

son, Henry F. Brownson (Detroit, 1882-87), does not assign the review to

him, but the International Weekly Miscellany (I, 34, July 8, 1850) referred

to the review as by "Dr. Brownson," and internal evidence would indi-

cate that it was his. Earlier a member of the Transcendental Club but

always unstable in his beliefs, Brownson had become by 1850 one of the

strongest opponents of the transcendentalists. For his diatribes against

them and their philosophy, see Works, VI, 1-243.

20. XVIII, 134 (Sept., 1850).

21. 4th Ser., IX, 381 (August 10, 1850).

22. XVIII, 535-36 (Nov., 1850). Coming in a series of "Critical Notices"

at the end of the number, this unsigned review may have been by the

editor, William Gilmore Simms. The list of Simms's "Chief Contribu-

tions to Magazines" in William P. Trent's William Gilmore Simms (Bos-

ton and New York, 1892, pp. 339-41) does not contain the review, but the

brief list names only major articles.

23. "Death-Verses," XIII, 538-39 (June, 1851). The article was signed


24. "Recollections of Poets Laureate — Tennyson," American Whig Re-

view, XV, 522 (June, 1852).

25. Home Journal, Feb. 14, 1853.

26. XXVII, 205 (Sept., 1850). The review was signed "S. E. B."

27. VIII, 598-615 (Nov., 1850). The General Index gives Increase N.

Tarbox, Boston minister and Biblical scholar, as the author of the review.

28. XXXVII, 198-99 (Sept., 1850).

29. I, 570 (Sept., 1850).

[Chapter IV] NOTES 227

30. May 29, MS, Craigie House Papers. The first part of the dialogue is

copied into Felton's unpublished journals of travel, 1853 (Felton Collection,

Harvard College Library). There the conversation reaches Tennyson but

breaks off just before the passages on In Memoriam. The dialogue does

not appear in any of Felton's published journals of travel.

31. Literary World, VII, 30 (July 13, 1850).

32. Southern Literary Messenger, XVI, 688 (Nov., 1850).

33. Literary World, VII, 30 (July 13, 1850). One young reviewer, a

student at Princeton, felt that the anonymity did not excuse Tennyson

for "thus making a parade" of his sorrow: what more right had Tenny-

son than anyone else "to obtrude his private griefs upon the public no-

tice?" (Nassau Literary Magazine, X, 62-65, Oct., 1850.)

34. XLIX, 290 (Sept., 1850). William Cushing's Index to the Christian

Examiner (Boston, 1879, p. 111) assigns this unsigned review of In Me-

moriam to C. C. Smith.

35. VIII, 612 (Nov., 1850).

36. X, 153-58 (April, 1853). The review was signed "F."

37. XVI, 48-50 (Jan., 1851).

38. See New Englander, VIII, 602 (Nov., 1850).

39. Mott, op. cit., I, 369.

40. XXIX, 122 (August 3, 1850).

41. "Infidelity in England," VI, 181 (Feb. 12, 1851). The article was

signed "C. B.W." The Boston Daily Evening Transcript (March 11, 1851)

reprinted the "able" article as a matter of information "without endorsing

either the facts or the conclusions of the writer." Lines of In Memoriam

are quoted from Sections LVI, stanza 5; LIII, stanza 9; and XCVI,

stanza 3. The last stanza is misquoted: There is more faith should be

There lives more faith. Sections CXVIII-CXX, which in outlining the

evolution of man from a lower state approximate the later notorious

Darwinian theory of evolution, seem to have aroused no opposition. The

great furor over the theory came, of course, with the publication of

Darwin's The Origin of the Species in 1859.

42. Letter, Dec. 19, 1850 or 1851, quoted in Morse, op. cit., II, 277. Lord

Herbert of Cherbury, Ben Jonson, and Sir Philip Sidney had used the

same rime scheme, but according to J. F. A. Pyre (op. cit., p. 105), "Tenny-

son neither stumbled upon this arrangement nor did he adopt it from

any of his predecessors. It was a natural product of his experiments."

Tennyson himself wrote, "I had no notion till 1880 that Lord Herbert

of Cherbury had written his occasional verses in the same metre. I believed

myself the originator of the metre, until after 'In Memoriam' came out,

when some one told me that Ben Jonson and Sir Philip Sidney had used

it" (Memoir, I, 305-06).

43. Letter, Oct. 6, 1850, quoted in Richard Henry Stoddard: Recollections

Personal and Literary (New York, 1903), pp. 189-90. For praise by Stoddard,

see his article, "Alfred Tennyson," in the National Magazine, IX, 408-15

(Nov., 1856).

44. National Magazine, IV, 15-17 (Jan., 1854).

45. XXXVII, 198-99 (Sept., 1850).

46. It was given various titles: "The Ending and Beginning Year," New

York Daily Tribune, Dec. 31, 1850; "Carol for the New Year," Harper's

228 NOTES [Chapter IV]

Monthly, II, 396 (Feb., 1851); "The Dying Year," Boston Daily Evening

Transcript, Dec. 31, 1851; etc.

47. "The Poetry of Sorrow," London Times, Nov. 28, 1851.

48. Feb. 14, 1852. When the Boston Weekly Museum (IV, 303, Feb. 28,

1852) reprinted the article from the London Times, it quoted the Home

Journal's approval.

49. 4th Ser., XI, 51 (Jan. 31, 1852).

50. Feb. 28, 1852. The contributor signed his article "New Hampshire."

The article was reprinted in the Boston Weekly Museum, IV, 315 (March 13,


51. VII, 256 (Oct., 1850).

52. North American Review, LXXXIII, 115 (July, 1856). This review

of In Memoriam together with reviews of two other works formed an article

entitled "The Literature of Friendship."

53. "Death Verses," American Whig Review, XIII, 535-36 (June, 1851).

The review was signed "J. S."

54. Increase N. Tarbox, New Englander, VIII, 615 (Nov., 1850). The

quotation was from Charles Kingsley's review in Fraser's Magazine (XLII,

252, Sept., 1850): ". . . — in our eyes, [In Memoriam is] the noblest English

Christian poem which several centuries have seen." Tarbox quoted the

passage incorrectly: "In our eyes it is the noblest Christian poem, which

England has produced for two centuries."

55. Kingsley's statement quoted above was not at all extraordinary. Cf.:

"This is a glorious work, and worthy of the chief efforts of the chief minds"

(North British Review, XIII, 553, August, 1850). "Not thus [comparison

with Milton and Petrarch], however — nor by comparison even with the

extraordinary friendship, love, and grief, commemorated in the sonnets of

Shakespeare — should we commemorate the highest and most distinctive

claims of this In Memoriam" (Examiner, No. 2188, p. 256, June 8, 1850).

". . . it is the finest poem the world has seen for very many years" (Tait's

Edinburgh Magazine, N. S., XVII, 505, August, 1850). Nowhere in American

criticism have such superlative statements been found before 1855.

56. Hallam Tennyson wrote in the Memoir (I, 298), "At first the reviews

of the volume were not on the whole sympathetic," and Professor Harold

Nicolson (op. cit., p. 163), doubtless expanding upon that statement wrote

that "at first the reviewers were generally unfavorable." But these state-

ments are somewhat inexplicable. Of a score of reviews which I have seen

in leading British periodicals, only one — that in the Times — was definitely

unfavorable. Cf. Professor Lounsbury's statement (op. cit., p. 620): " 'In

Memoriam' had one distinction which none other of Tennyson's works had

ever enjoyed. From the very moment of its publication it was greeted with

an almost unanimous chorus of approval by the critical press." All of the

Tennyson biographers were basing their statements upon the British re-

views. Except for Professor Lounsbury, who had seen one, they had ob-

viously not seen any of the unfavorable American reviews.

57. "The Poetry of Sorrow," Nov. 28, 1851.

58. See especially "The 'Times' and the Poets," Tait's Edinburgh Mag-

azine, N. S., XIX, 18-21 (Jan., 1852). Several eclectic magazines reprinted

the article in America.

59. Cf.: "Our laborious analysis of 'The Princess' sufficiently showed that

[Chapter V] NOTES 229

we had faith in Mr. Tennyson for something more than the exquisite

polished expression of ordinary thought and sentiment, upon which his

mere popularity rests and his reviewers for the most part dwell; we felt

that careful study had given us a right to express ourselves freely concern-

ing what seemed to us to be the errors of that poem; and the fact that we

did so express ourselves is a proof of our impartiality that ought, perhaps,

to be mentioned at the commencement of the notice of a poem [In Memo-

riarri] . . . concerning which we have nothing but praise to utter (North

British Review, XIII, 532, August, 1850). "It has been often asked why Mr.

Tennyson's great and varied powers had never been concentrated on one

immortal work. The epic, the lyric, the idyllic faculties, perhaps the dra-

matic also, seemed to be all there, and yet all sundered, scattered about in

small fragmentary poems. 'In Memoriam,' as we think, explains the para-

dox. Mr. Tennyson had been employed on higher, more truly divine, and

yet more truly human work than either epos or drama" (Fraser's Magazine,

XLII, 254-55, Sept., 1850).

60. Few Englishmen preferred Tennyson's early poems to his later.

Edward Fitzgerald, who "gave up all hopes of him [Tennyson] after 'The

Princess,' " was an exception, and because of the belief was, as he put it,

"considered a great heretic" (Memoir, I, 253).

61. Letter, August 1, 1842, quoted in Reid, op. cit., p. 280.

62. Cf.: ". . . the dainty trick of Tennyson cloys when caught by a whole

generation of versifiers, as the style of a great poet never can be" ("Swin-

burne's Tragedies," 1866, in Works, II, 158). In his review of Enoch Arden

(North American Review, XCIX, 626, Oct., 1864) Lowell accused Tennyson

of vainly trying to imitate his "former self" and ranked Tennyson in the

"highest order of minor poets." Lowell's change of attitude toward Tenny-

son was due partly to a change within himself. In his earlier days he liked

the purely aesthetic more than he did later, but that he always preferred

the earlier poetry of Tennyson to the later is beyond question.

63. International Weekly Miscellany, I, 34 (July 8, 1850).

Chapter V

1. International Weekly Miscellany, I, 105 (July 1, 1850).

2. Ibid.; and Home Journal, June 8, 1850. The Home Journal had heard

that Mary Howitt, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, and Caroline Norton were

all being considered.

3. Boston Weekly Museum, III, 69 (August 10, 1850).

4. "Valley of Diamonds," August 2, 1850.

5. Hansen-Taylor and Scudder, op. cit., I, 197. See Literary World, VII,

481 (Dec. 14, 1850); and Boston Weekly Museum, III, 220 (Dec. 21, 1850).

The only expression of disappointment which has been found appeared

in the International Monthly Magazine (II, 180, Jan., 1851), which had

already shown its dislike for Tennyson. It merely paraphrased — without

giving credit — Henry F. Chorley's tirade in the London Athenaeum, No.

1204, p. 1218 (Nov. 23, 1850). Chorley had championed the cause of Eliza-

beth Barrett Browning and was indignant when she did not receive the


6. "On Some of the Characteristics of Modern Poetry and on the Lyrical

230 NOTES [Chapter V]

Poems of Alfred Tennyson," Englishman's Magazine, I, 616-28 (August,

1831). For a concise discussion of the English attitude in the eighteen-

forties that Tennyson was the "true prophet of the new times," see Leslie

A. Marchand, The Athenaeum, A Mirror of Victorian Culture (Chapel

Hill, N. C, 1941), pp. 275-77.

7. New World, V, 63 (July 23, 1842).

8. Review of Poems (1842), Knickerbocker, XXV, 534-35 (June, 1845).

9. H. H. Clements, "Tennyson," New York Illustrated Magazine of Lit-

erature and Art, II, 241-44 (Sept., 1846).

10. The best discussion of this which I have seen is in an unpublished

doctoral thesis (1936) in the University of North Carolina Library: Guy

Adams Cardwell, Jr., Charleston Periodicals, 1795-1860. See chapters en-

titled "The Heritage from Eighteenth Century England," "Changing stand-

ards," and "Byron and Byronism in Charleston" (pp. 56-159).

11. The Autobiography of William J. Grayson, ed. Robert Duncan Bass

(unpublished Ph. D. thesis, University of South Carolina, 1933), pp. 247-48.

Grayson's Autobiography, written in 1862, has never been published.

12. Simms was editor of the Magnolia, 1842-43, the Southern and West-

ern Magazine, 1845, and the Southern Quarterly Review, 1849-55. Curi-

ously, in spite of his general coolness to modern poets, Simms espoused the

cause of one at a time when that poet had few followers: Simms was among

the earliest to like Browning. See Trent, op. cit., p. 197.

13. "Literature in the South," Russell's Magazine, V, 386-87 (August,

1859). John Russell's personal set of Russell's now in the New York Public

Library has this unsigned article marked Timrod's. Guy A. Cardwell, Jr.

(op. cit., p. 385), who had seen other sources for ascription of authorship

in Russell's, also assigns the article to Timrod.

14. Evert A. Duyckinck wrote into his diary on December 1, 1859, that

he had asked Irving a short time before whether he was an admirer of

Tennyson and had received the confession quoted (MS, Duyckinck Col-

lection, New York Public Library).

15. Bryant was widely quoted as having praised Tennyson's brief poem,

"The Eagle." Of its fourth line, "The wrinkled sea beneath him crawls," he

thought "perhaps no single line in our language conveys so forcible an

idea of height" (see Boston Daily Evening Transcript, Jan. 25, 1854; and

Harper's Magazine, XII, 860, May, 1856). One magazine quoted him as

having praised the "compact expressiveness" of a passage in "Locksley

Hall" (Crayon, V, 90, March, 1858).

16. Parke Godwin, A Biography of William Cullen Bryant (New York,

1883), II, 21-23.

17. A letter, Halleck to Samuel Ward, August 25, 1862, quoted in James

Grant Wilson, Bryant and His Friends (New York, 1886), pp. 265-66.

18. Joel Benton, "Some Reminiscences of Fitz-Greene Halleck," Frank

Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, XXV, 243, (Jan. 4, 1868), and Evert A. Duy-

ckinck, "Fitz-Greene Halleck," Putnam's Monthly Magazine, N.S., I, 246

(Feb., 1868). In recording Halleck 's estimate of Tennyson, Duyckinck turned

aside long enough to assure his readers that Halleck was doing Tennyson

an injustice.

19. Benton, loc. cit. Like Bryant, Halleck liked a few scattered passages

from Tennyson. Bayard Taylor described his vain efforts to convince Hal-

[Chapter V] NOTES 231

leek of Tennyson's genius. After reading poem after poem without effect,

Taylor read "The Eagle," and a sudden light flashed into Halleck's eye,

" 'Ringed with the azure world,' " Halleck repeated; "yes, that's poetry!"

(Taylor, "Fitz-Greene Halleck," North American Review, CXXV, 65, July,

1877). For favorable comment by Halleck on a few other lines from Tenny-

son, see Frederick S. Cozzens, Fitz-Greene Halleck. A Memorial (New York,

1868), p. 18.

20. Merwin & Hitchcock, San Francisco booksellers, advertised the poems

in the early eighteen-fifties, and later J. J. Lecount, proud of his "most

extensive assortment [of books] on the Pacific Coast," also advertised

them. See San Francisco Daily Herald, Dec. 4-31, 1852; San Francisco

Weekly Pacific, Dec. 10, 1852 — Feb. 11, 1853; San Francisco Evening Bulle-

tin, Dec. 18-31, 1858; etc.

21. San Francisco Weekly Pacific, July 23, 1852. For an early California

review of Tennyson's poems, see the Pioneer; or, California Monthly Mag-

azine (III, 28-34, Jan., 1855). Written by Charles E. Havens, minor Cali-

fornia poet, the review mixed praise and blame fairly equally. Havens

thought Tennyson's versification faultless and his "musical simplicity of

style" unexcelled, but felt that Tennyson lacked the inventive faculty; and

without explaining himself Havens objected to the "profanity" of In

Memoriam and the general "Transcendentalism" of Tennyson's philos-

ophy. That Havens liked Tennyson better in practice than in theory is

indicated by his imitations quoted below.

22. The "Editor's Table" of Russell's directly answered the article on

ancient and modern poetry in the Home Journal. ". . . if search had been

made among the vast body of English Poets from Chaucer downward, this

caviller could not have selected an author whose writings are more dis-

tinguished for consistent, unvarying, wonderful clearness — clearness of de-

sign, diction, imagination, metaphor, and allusion — than Alfred Tenny-

son" (I, 182, May, 1857).

23. Letter to his mother, Nov. 3, 1857, quoted in Laura Stedman and

George M. Gould, Life and Letters of Edmund Clarence Stedman (New

York, 1910), I, 142-43.

24. Letter to Henry C. Townsend, Nov. 21, 1856, quoted in Henry C.

Townsend, A Memoir of T. Buchanan Read (Philadelphia, 1889), p. 103.

25. "Alfred Tennyson," National Magazine, IX, 415 (Nov., 1856).

26. Examples are to be found throughout American magazines from the

late eighteen-forties on. See reviews of the poems of Thomas Buchanan

Read (Ladies' National Magazine, XI, 125, March, 1847), of Philip Pendle-

ton Cooke (Illustrated Monthly Courier [Philadelphia], I, 57-58, Oct. 2,

1848), of Browning, (Graham's Magazine, XXXV, 378, Dec, 1849), etc.

27. "Tennyson," Presbyterian Quarterly Review, VI, 657 (March, 1858).

The Boston Daily Evening Transcript (March 18, 1858) reprinted parts of

the article and gave its strong approval.

28. When Tennyson finally republished "The Deserted House" and "The

Sea-Fairies" from Poems, Chiefly Lyrical in 1851 and 1853 respectively,

they went their rounds in American newspapers and magazines. They had

been favorites with Americans in the eighteen-thirties, and their reception

now was just as warm. Of "The Deserted House," the Boston Daily Eve-

ning Transcript (May 16, 1853) wrote, "For simplicity of conception and

232 NOTES [Chapter V]

language, in appropriateness of imagery and the solemn tone it breathes,

this little poem has been rarely surpassed." F. C. Ewer clipped "The Sea-

Fairies" from some newspaper for inclusion in his Pioneer: or, California

Monthly Magazine ("Editor's Table," IV, 68, July, 1855) as one of the most

"exquisite" and "exceedingly delicate" poems he had ever read. Ticknor &

Fields included the poems in an American edition in 1854. The Literary

World found Timbuctoo somewhere and reprinted it as a "rarity" in 1852

(X, 93, Jan. 31), and the Southern Literary Messenger (XVII, 252, April,

1851) found the sonnet, "But Were I Loved As I Desire to Be," of the

1833 Poems. Not knowing where the poem came from, John R. Thompson

described it in his "Editor's Table" as a new sonnet of Tennyson's "just

from the mint." Incidentally, in the eighteen-sixties and seventies Ticknor

& Fields and Harper's waged a spirited contest to see who could find more

"new" poems by Tennyson. Digging into the early suppressed poems, they

published everything they could find.

29. Charles E. Havens, "The Poems of Alfred Tennyson," Pioneer; or,

California Monthly Magazine, III, 33-34 (Jan., 1855); "Tennyson," Presby-

terian Quarterly Review, VI, 657-58 (March, 1858); and a review of Tick-

nor's "Blue and Gold" pocket edition of Tennyson's Poetical Works,

Arthur's Home Magazine, VIII, 181 (Sept., 1856).

30. Delivered at the Lowell Institute in Boston in April and at Hope

Chapel in New York in December, the lecture on Tennyson was reported

in the Boston Daily Evening Transcript (April 20) and in the New York

Daily Times (Dec. 5). The lectures were obviously the same. The Times

gave much the longer and more detailed of the two reports.

31. New York Times' s report (Dec. 5, 1853) of Holmes's lecture.

32. Review of Tennyson's poems, Southern Literary Messenger, XIX,

657 (Nov., 1853).

33. "Family Portraits," Putnam's Monthly Magazine, I, 334 (March,

1853). Another called the poem a telling blow struck at "haughty pride"

(Southern Literary Messenger, XVI, 691, Nov., 1850).

34. Southern Literary Messenger, XIX, 658 (Nov., 1853).

35. Review of Coventry Patmore's The Angel in the House, Putnam's

Monthly Magazine, VIII, 23 (July, 1856).

36. "Wordsworth and Tennyson," Yale Literary Magazine, XIX, 299

(July, 1854). The article was signed "W. W."

37. Southern Literary Messenger, XIX, 658 (Nov., 1853).

38. Clements, op. cit., pp. 241-42.

39. Review of Poetical Works of Henry Alford, Graham's Magazine,

XLII, 503 (April, 1853).

40. The International Weekly Miscellany (I, 34, July 1, 1850) wrote that

people flocked to the bookstores for every new poem of Tennyson's; the

New York Independent (IX, 8, April 16, 1857) described the sale of Tenny-

son's poems as "unexampled"; etc.

41. For the high prices demanded by Tennyson from his English pub-

lishers, see William Tinsley, Random Recollections of an Old Publisher

(London and Paris, 1905), I, 236 ff.; and Frank A. Mumby, The House of

Routledge, 1834-1934 (London, 1934), pp. 80-81 and 185 ff. Upon his be-

coming Poet Laureate, Tennyson received from his English publishers

hundreds of pounds for every new work, but no record has been found

[Chapter V] NOTES 233

of Ticknor's ever paying over one hundred and fifty dollars. Ticknor paid

that amount for the 1842 Poems. According to the New York Literary

American (II, 380, April 21, 1849) he paid that amount in 1849 for "re-

printing an edition" of Tennyson's poems. And on October 26, 1855, con-

cerning the publication of Maud, and Other Poems, Tennyson wrote to

Ticknor, "I have this morning received your draft for £30 for which I re-

quest yourself & Mr. Fields to accept my thanks" (MS in James T. Fields's

autograph album, Harvard College Library). Just how often Ticknor sent

such drafts to Tennyson cannot be determined, but one can be certain that

their total never rivaled that of the English royalties.

42. The English figures below are from Wise, op. cit., I, 80 ff. The

American figures are listed in Roorbach's Bibliotheca Americana, Ticknor's

sales catalogues, and throughout Boston and New York newspapers. These

prices for the plain paper board editions (both American and English pub-

lishers, of course, sold more expensive editions) in America showed no

variation from year to year, and the prices in New York were the same as

those in Boston. The English editions were sometimes advertised in this

country (Wiley and Putnam of New York listed the Boston and London

editions of Poems side by side in their sales catalogue for 1844 with prices:

Boston, $1.50; London, $3.50), but after the mid-eighteen-forties advertise-

ments of the English editions were extremely rare. That Ticknor's editions

were practically duplicates of the London edition has been noted many


43. "Diffusion of Books," N. S., VI, 198-200 (Sept. 19, 1846). Incidentally,

the absence of international copyright worked both ways. Longfellow's

poems, for instance, sold in London at much cheaper prices than did the

works of English poets, and, partly in consequence, Longfellow was one of

the most widely read poets in the British Isles during the middle of the

nineteenth century. Charles Eliot Norton wrote to Mrs. George Ticknor

from London on June 21, 1850, "Everybody here says there is no poet in

England to be compared with Mr. Longfellow" (Letters of Charles Eliot

Norton, ed. Sara Norton and M. A. De Wolfe Howe, Boston and New York,

1913, I, 69). See Clarence Gohdes, "Longfellow and His Authorized British

Publishers," PMLA, LV, 1165-79 (Dec, 1940).

44. John R. Thompson in 1858 replied to a censorious English criticism

with a detailed comparison of Longfellow and Tennyson: "Mr. Long-

fellow has often been compared with Tennyson, and a recent English critic,

in a paragraph of flippant depreciation of America, has arraigned him as

only a feeble imitator of the Tennysonian model. But a more unjust accu-

sation could not have been made. In some respects indeed, the two lau-

reates are alike. A quiet, thoughtful melancholy pervades the poems of

both. Each of them has enwreathed legendary lore with poetic garlands,

each sings of love and ambition and sorrow and longings for the world

beyond the grave. But in their modes of expression and in their manner of

treatment no two writers could be more different. ... It is the strongest

possible proof of the essential difference between Tennyson and Long-

fellow, that while many have challenged the genius of the former because

of his indistinctness, as many have denied to the latter great powers be-

cause of the clearness and simplicity which belong to the enunciation of

his thoughts. . . . Upon the principle of omne ignotum pro magnifico,

234 NOTES [Chapter V]

Mr. Longfellow is, indeed, but a mere versifier; upon the principle that

what proves nothing is worth nothing, Mr. Tennyson is but a cloudy rhap-

sodist. Yet is each undeniably a true child of genius" (review of The Court-

ship of Miles Standish and Other Poems, Southern Literary Messenger,

XXVII, 389-90, Nov., 1858). The Nassau Literary Magazine noted that

Longfellow was called "the American Tennyson" and set out to prove that

he was "no lunar copy" (IX, 337, June, 1850). The Southern Quarterly

Review wrote, "We are not afraid to compare Longfellow and Bryant with

Tennyson and Cunningham. . . . Longfellow's Midnight Mass for the

Dying Year is as far superior to Tennyson's Death of the Old Year, as one

piece of poetry can surpass another of the same class" ("Fugitive Poetry of

America," signed "A. S. P.," XIV, 114, July, 1848); and the Southern Liter-

ary Messenger quoted the New York Express as having declared concerning

Poe's "The Raven" that no one could "pretend to enter into competition

with it, except, perhaps, Alfred Tennyson, and he only to be excelled out

of measure" (XI, 187, March, 1845). See also Knickerbocker, XLIV, 435-

36 (Oct., 1854); and Peterson's Magazine, XXXIV, 448-49 (Dec, 1858).

45. Letter to Ferdinand J. Dreer, Dec. 15, i860, quoted in Townsend,

op. cit., p. 118.

46. Ticknor and Fields printed the letter in the front of their two-volume

edition of Poems, 1856, and in many editions thereafter.

47. The earliest edition that I have found by another American pub-

lisher appeared in 1862, when G. Routledge and Sons issued through their

New York office an elaborately illustrated edition of Works. Very possibly

other non-Ticknor editions appeared earlier, but they were not widely

advertised, no copies now exist in the largest American libraries, and no

record of them is listed in the several large union catalogues in the country.

48. "Editor's Table," L, 94 (July, 1857).

49. New York Daily Tribune, June 20, 1856.

50. Putnam's Monthly Magazine, VIII, 98 (July, 1856). The pocket edition

sold for seventy-five cents.

51. "The Little-Book Epidemic," June 20, 1857.

52. Ticknor and Fields printed the poem in the front of later issues of

the pocket editions and used it extensively in their advertising. That the

poem was especially addressed to Fields and that it was written by Hillard

are facts shown by a letter, Fields to Evert A. Duyckinck, June 7, 1856. Copy-

ing the poem in full, Fields prefaced it with the sentence, "A few days ago

I sent you a little pocket Tennyson, which I hope you will like as much

as Hillard who addressed to me these lines" (MS, Duyckinck Collection,

New York Public Library).

53. New York Daily Tribune, Dec. 6, 1856.

54. New York, 1857, PP- 43 2 ~55- Willmott's original English edition con-

tained only "The May Queen" and "Break, Break, Break"; Duyckinck

added the other three (see p. xi of Table of Contents).

55. Philadelphia, 1859, pp. 313-24. The volume was reviewed as early as

December 2, 1858 (Boston Daily Evening Transcript).

56. For a general description of the literary annuals and their contents,

see Ralph Thompson, American Literary Annuals & Gift Books (New

York, 1936), pp. 1-36. Professor Bradford A. Booth of the University of

California at Los Angeles, who is preparing an index of American annuals,

[Chapter V] NOTES 235

1825-1865, has written to me in a letter of February 15, 1941, that he has

found 75 poems of Mrs. Hemans, 21 of Byron's, 20 of Tom Moore's and

19 of Wordsworth's, as compared with 17 of Tennyson's. It should be re-

membered with reference to the comparison that Tennyson came into

prominence later in the period than any other of the group. For a list of

Tennyson items in American annuals, see Appendix B.

57. This rare gift-book, not listed in Ralph Thompson's catalogue (op.

cit., pp. 102-63), has been found only in the library of the Boston Athe-


58. Boston, 1854, pp. 116-21. The Prologue, the first four stanzas of Sec-

tion XXXIII, Section LIV, and Section CVI ("Ring Out, Wild Bells") were

quoted. The book was reprinted in entirety the same year as An Excursion

among the Poets (Richmond, Va.) with H. C. Foster named on the title

page as editor.

59. Curiously, all four poems were taken from Tennyson's early volumes,

and not from the Poems of 1842. "The Grasshopper" and "The Deserted

House" of Poems, Chiefly Lyrical were not reprinted in 1842, and textual

variations in the other two items, "The May Queen" and "New Year's

Eve" show that they were printed from the Poems of 1833; none of the

corrections which Tennyson made in the 1842 version appear. When a

second volume, called "Part Second," of Poetry for Home and School ap-

peared in 1846, three other poems of Tennyson — all from the 1842 volume

— were added, to bring his total to seven and give him a representation

within the first five in a collection of poets, American and English, from

Chaucer to contemporary times.

60. Cincinnati, 1857, pp. 206-09, 328-29. I have carefully checked the

several hundred McGuffey texts in the almost complete collection of the

Library of Congress and have found no other Tennyson item in a reader

as early as 1858.

61. William and Anna U. Russell, Introduction to the Young Ladies'

Elocutionary Reader, (Boston, 1845) pp. 162-64. As in the Poetry for Home

and School, the text is that of the 1833 Poems.

62. Francis T. Russell (New York, 1847), pp. 93-94.

63. "Bayard Taylor's Poems," American Whig Review, XV, 33 (Jan.,


64. Review of Poems by Owen Meredith, Southern Literary Messenger,

XXVIII, 473 (June, 1859). This review has been doubtfully assigned to

John R. Thompson (Jackson, op. cit., p. 142).

65. Cf. S. Foster Damon, Thomas Holley Chivers, Friend of Poe (New

York and London, 1930, pp. 185-86): "After Tennyson's volume of 1842,

melodious feminine names had become common."

66. Professor Damon (op. cit., p. 210) gives 1841 as the date of "Isadore,"

but his only reference is to an article by W. C. Richardson in the Boston

Daily Evening Transcript for April 24, 1897, which states that the poem

was "written and published" in 1841. Neither biographer tells where it was

published, and apparently no one knows.

67. Eonchs of Ruby (New York, 1851), p. 97. The first stanza is quoted.

68. Professor J. F. A. Pyre wrote in 1921 (op. cit., p. 248) concerning

"Locksley Hall" and its English followers, "These poems immediately

crossed the Atlantic and created there the rhythms of Poe's The Raven

236 NOTES [Chapter V]

(1845) and its congeners." The influence of "Locksley Hall" seems clear,

but if "Isadore," apparently the earliest of the Poe-Chivers group using

the rhythm, appeared earlier than "Locksley Hall," Professor Pyre's state-

ment must be revised.

Several verbal echoes strengthen the connection between Tennyson and

"The Raven." Tennyson's "No More," a contribution to The Gem: A

Literary Annual for 1831, repeated its title as a refrain, and "Anacreontics,"

another contribution to the same annual, used the name "Lenora" (see

"Literary Gossip," Athenaeum, No. 2473, p. 395, March 20, 1875). The line

from "No More," "Surely all pleasant things had gone before," instantly

suggests Poe's

Other friends have flown before —

On the morrow he will leave me, as my hopes have

flown before.

Also, Tennyson's line from "Adeline" of Poems, Chiefly Lyrical, "Take

the heart from out my breast," suggests Poe's "Take thy beak from out

my heart." Tennyson's "The Sea-Fairies," "All Things Will Die," "Made-

line," and "Eleanore," all contain elements which may have contributed

to the refrain of "The Raven," but since such refrains were being used

frequently at the time, one cannot speak with definiteness of the Tennyson

influence there. See Robert S. Forsythe, "Poe's 'Nevermore': A Note,"

American Literature, VII, 439-52 (Jan., 1936).

69. Professor Pyre (op. cit., pp. 244-49) concluded that the meter was

Tennyson's invention.

70. Graham's Magazine, XXII, 35 (Jan., 1843); see Longfellow's Works,

I, 211-14. The first two stanzas are quoted.

71. Works, I, 219-23. A note (p. 219) dates the poem in the spring of 1844.

72. The Dream of a Day and Other Poems (New Haven, Conn., 1843),

PP- 193-94-

73. Poems (Boston, 1847), pp. 138-39. Story dated the poem 1843. The

fifth and sixth stanzas are quoted. For a later copying of the rhythm by

Story, see his "Prologue — Spoken at the Inauguration of Crawford's Bronze

Statue of Beethoven, at the Boston Music Hall, March 1, 1856" (Poems,

Boston, 1856, pp. 296-305).

74. First published as "Verses Suggested by the Present Crisis" in the

Boston Daily Courier, December 11, 1845. See Lowell's Works, IX, 185-91.

The first stanza is quoted.

75. Poems (Boston, 1847), P- 1 - For "Inez," see pp. 42-45. "Inez" first

appeared in a gift-book for 1847 which was published in late 1846: Leaflets

of Memory (Philadelphia), pp. 25-27.

76. Poems of the Orient (Boston, 1855), pp. 105-10. Stanzas VI and VIII

are quoted. For a use of the rhythm in A Book of Romances, Lyrics and

Songs (Boston, 1852), see "Manuela," pp. 75-80.

77. See, for instance, Story's, "The Mistake" (Poems, Boston, 1847, pp. 96-

115) and Read's "The Fairer Land" (Lays and Ballads, Philadelphia, 1849,

pp. 115-17). "The Fairer Land" had been published a year earlier as the

proem to an anthology, The Female Poets of America (Philadelphia, 1848),

of which Read was editor.

78. Songs of Summer (Boston, 1857), P- J 9^- The first four lines of Sec-

[Chapter V] NOTES 237

tion III are quoted. The poem is dated 1853. Stoddard varied his four-line

stanzas, mixing in some aabb rimes toward the last.

79. Virginalia; or Songs of My Summer Nights (Philadelphia, 1853),

pp. 28-29. The poem is written in eight-line stanzas. The first four lines

of the third stanza are quoted. For other examples of Olivers' use of the

rhythm, see "Bessie Bell," "Rosalie Lee," and "Lily Adair," all in the same


80. "Song" ["That I loved thee — aye, adored thee"], The Boudoir Annual

for 1846 (Boston), p. 30.

81. The Brilliant, a gift-book for 1850 (New York), pp. 110-11.

82. See Mulchinock's Ballads and Songs (New York, 1851), pp. 110-18.

The connection with both "Locksley Hall" and "The May Queen" is ob-

vious. The poem is divided into Parts as is "The May Queen." Mulchinock's

girl directs her doleful but brave complaint to her mother, and Tenny-

son's refrain "mother dear" is repeated many times.

83. Pioneer; or, California Monthly Magazine, II, 149-50 (Sept., 1854).

Stanzas eleven, twelve, and thirteen are quoted. Several months earlier, a

poem, "Sea-Side Musings," signed "C. E. H." and very probably by Havens,

in the same magazine (I, 311-13, May, 1854) explained Tennyson's "argosies

of magic sails" and "pilots of the purple twilight":

Yonder cloud, so slowly sailing through the blue dome of the world,

Like an argosy, full freighted, with its canvas all unfurled,

Shall be anchored ere the twilight in some distant horizon

Crimson with the setting splendor of the slowly sinking sun.

Cf. Susan Archer Talley's "A Soul's Creed":

Pilots of the coming twilight floating on the Southern gale

Laden with costly treasure — amethyst and topaz pale

(Southern Literary Messenger, XV, 222-23, April, 1849; reprinted in Susan

Archer Talley's Poems, New York, 1859, p. 22).

84. Henry Latham in his poem, "The Age" (The Forget-Me-Not for

1856, New York, pp. 60-64) used the stanza and paraphrased the same pas-

sage, and Mulchinock's long series of poems, "Chants for Toilers" (op. cit.,

pp. 40-74), freely lifted both expressions and ideas from "Locksley Hall."

Compare, for instance,

Many a morning by the waters of the far resounding sea

Have I walked in meditation all my spirit fancy free — (p. 65)

to Tennyson's

Many a morning on the moorland did we hear the copses ring.

And her whisper throng'd my pulses with the fulness of the spring

(11. 35-36).

Also compare

From the chord of self-evoking music, wild but sweet to hear,

Fraught with mystic strange revealings to the earnest thinker's ear

(p. 160).

238 NOTES [Chapter V]

to Tennyson's

Love took up the harp of Life, and smote on all the chords with


Smote the chord of Self, that, trembling, past in music out of sight

(11. 33-34).

Verbal borrowing from "Locksley Hall," especially among the major poets

was infrequent, but copies of the rhythm are to be found everywhere. By

including verses written anonymously and by unknowns in American peri-

odicals and gift-books, one could continue the list indefinitely.

85. "American Authorship — Hawthorne," XXIII, 498 (April, 1853). The

article was signed "R. H. N., Macon, Geo."

86. Poems, Philadelphia, 1844, p. 15. The stanzas were dated June, 1836.

For another such example, see Alfred B. Street's "To the Brown Thrush,"

American Literary Magazine, Hartford, Conn., Ill, 145-46 (Sept., 1848).

87. Southern Literary Messenger, XVII, 104 (Feb., 1851). The first two

stanzas are quoted.

88. D. Parish Barhydt, "On the Death of James Fenimore Cooper,"

Literary World, IX, 252-53 (Sept. 27, 1851). The ninth, tenth, and eleventh

stanzas are quoted. Barhydt enjoyed using the stanza, ill-treating it just

as badly in other contributions to the Literary World: "The Hill," IX, 369

(Nov. 8, 1851), and "The River," X, 106 (Feb. 7, 1852). A New York sociolo-

gist, Barhydt wrote one long poem: Life (New York, 1851).

89. Pp. 140-41. For other examples, see "The Moon on the Spire" (pp.

103-04) and "I Lay His Picture on My Knee" (pp. 224-29). "Great and Small"

first appeared in Graham's Magazine, XLIII, 332 (Sept., 1853).

90. "H. W. L.," The Bells: A Collection of Chimes (New York, 1851), p. 24.

The first two stanzas are quoted.

91. A Vision of Faery Land and Other Poems (Boston, 1853), 201-03.

Incidentally, Henry Timrod's later Confederate War poem, "Christmas,"

suggests "Ring Out, Wild Bells" and in its closing invocation to peace is

very close to Section XI in In Memoriam. See The Poems of Henry Timrod,

ed. Paul H. Hayne (New York, 1873), pp. 104-07.

92. Graham's Magazine, XXXVIII, 184 (March, 1851); reprinted in Poems

(Boston, i860), pp. 169-71. "Grace Greenwood" was the pseudonym of Mrs.

Sara Jane Lippincott — traveler, poet, and voluminous writer. In her Poems

(Boston, 1851) she twice used the "Locksley Hall" stanza: "Arnold de

Winkelried" (pp. 179-86) and "The Gold-Seekers" (pp. 170-74). For Julia

Ward Howe's use of the In Memoriam stanza, see her Words for the Hour

(Boston, 1857), PP- 32-34» 49-5 1 > etc -

93. William Roderick Lawrence, "Isadore," Peterson's Magazine, XXV,

202 (March, 1854). A frequent contributor to Peterson's, Lawrence con-

sistently used the In Memoriam stanza. See "La Violette," XXVI, 383 (Dec,

1854); "Rosa Sine Spina," XXVII, 200 (March, 1855); etc.

94. "Death of the Old Year," The St. Lawrence and the Saguenay and

Other Poems (New York, 1856), pp. 92-94. For the review of the volume,

see the Albion, 4th Ser., XV, 393 (Aug. 16, 1856). In this volume, which

reminds one of some poem of Tennyson's on almost every page, Sangster

used the In Memoriam stanza again in "Fanny" (pp. 220-21).

95. International Monthly Magazine, IV, 169 (Sept., 1851). In 1849, John

[Chapter V] NOTES 239

Esten Cooke copied into his commonplace-book a rimed tetrameter version

of "Tears, Idle Tears" (John O. Beaty, John Esten Cooke, Virginian, New

York, 1922, p. 20).

96. "Lancelot of the Lake," Sartain's Union Magazine, X, 6-7 (Jan., 1852).

97. For a full description of Tennyson's blank verse, see Pyre, op. cit.,

pp. 68-93, 113-59-

98. Democratic Review, XIII, 147-53 (Aug., 1843); reprinted in Works,

IX, 112-23. Lines 95-103 and 360-64 are quoted.

99. Poems (Boston, 1849), II, 3-16; reprinted in Works, IX, 154-63. Lines

104-13 are quoted.

100. Russell's Magazine, I, 46 (Apr., 1857); reprinted in The Poems of

Henry Timrod, pp. 172-73. Lines 16-27 are quoted.

101. "He . . . will soon rank as one of the very noblest of American

poets. In fact, he is so now," "Marginalia," Southern Literary Messenger,

XV, 600 (Sept., 1849); see Poe's Works, XVI, 175-77.

102. Meditations in America and Other Poems (New York, 1851), pp. 89-

92. Lines 20-28 and 37-45 are quoted. For "Last Words of Washington" and

"Wordsworth," see pp. 69-75, 81-88.

103. "Ulysses," lines 6-11. The poem first appeared in the 1842 Poems.

See Works, II, 185-88. For a blank verse monologue by Bayard Taylor

written in the "Ulysses" manner, see "In Articulo Mortis" (Poems of the

Orient, pp. 186-92); and for an unusually clear verbal echo of "Ulysses,"

see William Gilmore Simms's Sonnet LV of "Grouped Thoughts and Scat-

tered Fancies" (Southern Literary Messenger, XI, 442, July, 1845):

"We are a part of all we hear and see, —

We share in their existence — we are taught

By what they suffer — with their feelings fraught."

Cf. "Ulysses": "I am a part of all that I have met. . . ." (1. 18).

104. Aldrich, op. cit., pp. 87-88.

105. Passion-Flowers (Boston, 1854), pp. 8-25, 46-58.

106. For the first two, see Poems (Boston, 1843), pp. 1-9, 115-18; for the

last, see Poems (Boston, 1847), pp. 27-34.

107. New York, 1844. See especially "The Mill" (pp. 29-30) and "The

Garden" (pp. 31-32).

108. Poems (Boston, 1852), pp. 70-73.

109. Russell's Magazine, II, 438 (Feb., 1858); see The Poems of Henry

Timrod, p. 191. For Stoddard's imitation, see "Rattle the Window, Winds!"

Songs of Summer, p. 45.

110. Lays and Ballads (Philadelphia, 1849), pp. 12-18. The fifth and

fifteenth stanzas are quoted. For Read's other imitation of "The Lady of

Shalott," see "Olivia," Poems (Boston, 1847), PP- 38-41.

111. See Henry B. Hirst's "Florence" (The Penance of Roland and Other

Poems, Boston, 1849, pp. 108-28) and James Barron Hope's "The Lover to

the Maiden" (Leoni Di Monota and Other Poems, Philadelphia, 1857, PP-

207-09). A poem, "Reading Tennyson" by Mary W. S. Gibson (Knicker-

bocker, XL VIII, 276, Sept., 1856) imitated and highly praised "The Lady

of Shalott."

112. The Coming of the Mammoth and Other Poems (Boston, 1845),

pp. 85-87. The sixth stanza is quoted.

240 NOTES [Chapter V]

113. Ballads and Songs, pp. 181-83. The sixth stanza is quoted. See also

"A Lament for Thomas Davis" (ibid., pp. 238-40), William Gibson's "Oralie"

(op. cit., pp. 204-10), and Thomas Bailey Aldrich's "Berthabell" (op. cit.,

pp. 89-90). Such poems are, of course, suggestive of numbers of poems

containing oft-repeated refrains. They are akin to Poe's and Chivers' poems

with lyrical refrains, and the Irish poet, James Clarence Mangan, is some-

times credited with popularizing such refrains (see Henry Edward Cain,

James Clarence Mangan and the Poe-Mangan Question, Washington, D. C,

1929, pp. 45-66). Mangan's "The Karamanian Exile," first published in 1844

(Dublin University Magazine, XXIII, 536, May) is typical of several of his

poems of the "Oriana" type, all of which may have been influenced by the

earlier "Oriana" (1830).

114. "The Funeral of Time" and "The Burial of Eros" (The Coming of

the Mammoth and Other Poems, pp. 31-36, 60-63), an< ^ "The Death of the

Year," Graham's Magazine, XXXVII, 333 (Dec, 1850). See also Mary E.

Hewitt's "A Lament for the Old Year" (Songs of Our Land and Other

Poems, Boston, 1846, pp. 107-08), and W. H. C. Hosmer's "Winter Sprites"

(Knickerbocker, XXVII, 228-30, March, 1846).

115. See Lowell's Works, IX, 301-24; and Scudder, op. cit., I, 266-69.

"The Sleeping Palace" is Section 1 of "The Day-Dream" (Tennyson's Works,

II, 219-21). There is an interesting parallel between the famous line in

"The Vision of Sir Launfal," "What is so rare as a day in June?" and a

line in the "Huntsman's Song" of Poems by Two Brothers (see 2nd ed.,

London and New York, 1893, pp. 61-62): "Oh! what is so sweet as a morning

in spring." The "Huntsman's Song" is doubtfully assigned to Charles

Tennyson (ibid., p. 62). It is very unlikely that Lowell saw Poems by Two

Brothers as early as 1848, but the lines are remarkably alike. One other

close parallel between well known passages in Lowell and Tennyson is

worthy of notice. The following lines from Lowell's "A Glance behind the

Curtain" remind one of the oft-quoted line in "Locksley Hall," "Better

fifty years of Europe than a cycle of Cathay" (1. 184):

We learn our souls more, tossing for an hour

Upon this huge and ever vexed sea

Of human thought where kingdoms go to wreck

Like fragile bubbles yonder in the stream,

Than in a cycle of New England sloth

(Democratic Review, XIII, 236-40, Sept., 1843; see Works, IX, 144).

As has been noted already, many of the most Tennysonian of Lowell's

early poems were uncollected in later editions of Lowell's poems, and

Tennyson echoes are much rarer in his later poems than in his earlier.

When Lowell revised his early poems, he invariably made them less Tenny-

sonian. This point is discussed at some length in an unpublished Master's

Essay (Columbia University, 1923): Allegra Stewart, A Comparison of Lowell

and Tennyson.

116. Poems (Boston, 1847), pp. 96-115. In both Tennyson's and Story's

poems, a lover reminisced over meetings with his sweetheart upon the mea-

dow under a great tree, and both the tree and the flower shared their

secrets. For another imitation of "The Talking Oak," see Hirst's "To an

Old Oak" (The Coming of The Mammoth and Other Poems, pp. 92-94).

[Chapter V] NOTES 241

117. See Mulchinock's "The Dying Girl" (op. cit., pp. 110-18) and I. B.

Woodbury's "Mother Dear, O Pray for Me" (American Monthly Musical

Revieio, I, 1-9, Nov. 1, 1850).

118. John R. Thompson printed the improvement, which was written, he

said, by "an adventurous writer in the interior of our state," in his "Editor's

Table" of the Southern Literary Messenger (XXIII, 470-71, Dec, 1856).

With the improvement Thompson printed Tennyson's poem, together with

harsh reprimands to the "improver." See also William W. Story's "No

More" (Poems, 1847, PP- 89-90):

Flow on, sad stream, unto the sea!

Thou flowest on as ever,

But the heart most dear no more is here,

Forever and forever.

Tennyson's "A Farewell" begins in the same manner:

Flow down, cold rivulet, to the sea,

Thy tribute wave deliver:

No more by thee my steps shall be

Forever and forever

(first published in 1842 Poems; see Works, II, 282).

119. See Hirst's "The Owl" (The Coming of the Mammoth and Other

Poems, pp. 118-19) and Thomas B. Read's "The Windy Night" (Poems,

Boston, 1847, PP- 62-64).

120. Besides those already noted, see Chivers' "Cradle-Song" (Virginalia,

p. 128), which is most like Tennyson's "Sweet and Low" (Part II, 11. 456-72);

and anonymous "Lines" ["Ask Me not, with simple grace"] (The Garland:

or, Token of Friendship, New York, 1855, pp. 30-31), which plagiarize

"Ask Me No More" (Part VI, 11. 364-79).

121. Words for the Hour (Boston, 1857), PP- 35~37- The first three stanzas

are quoted. For Hope's "The Charge at Balaklava," see op. cit., pp. 79-86.

For Meek's "Balaklava," see his Songs and Poems of the South (New York,

1 ^57)» PP- 89-93- Of the three imitations, Meek's is least like Tennyson, but

Meek's poem was directly inspired by Tennyson's. Challenged by a friend

to write a poem on a subject treated by an English poet and to sign the

name of an English poet to it in order to see how popular it would be-

come, Meek wrote "Balaklava" for the New Orleans Sunday Delta in 1855

over the name of Alexander Smith (Herman Clarence Nixon, Alexander

Beaufort Meek, Auburn, Ala., 1910, pp. 20-21). As Smith's, "Balaklava"

attracted wide attention both in England and America (ibid.). When it was

included in Songs and Poems of the South, Meek stated in the preface (p.

vi) that "by some error of the press" the poem had been attributed to

Alexander Smith, but for many years it was still referred to as Smith's. For

comparisons of "Balaklava" and "The Charge of the Light Brigade," see

"Smith and the Poet Laureate," Boston Daily Evening Transcript, March

15, 1855, and "Editor's Table," Pioneer; or, California Monthly Magazine,

III, 279-80 (June, 1855).

122. "Kane," Southern Literary Messenger, XXIV, 257-60 (Apr., 1857).

For the assignment of this anonymous poem to Cooke, and for a discussion

of its relation to Tennyson's "Ode," see Beaty, op. cit., p. 67.

123. Songs of Summer, pp. 166-67. Tennyson's song is from "Maud," I,

2 4 2 NOTES [Chapter V]

850-923. Points of resemblance between the two poems are discussed in Wil-

liam Purviance Fenn, "Richard Henry Stoddard's Chinese Poems," Ameri-

can Literature, XI, 421 (Jan., 1940).

124. Lyra and Other Poems (New York, 1852), pp. 30-32. Lines 34-48 are

quoted. Several other poems in this volume are close to "Mariana." See

especially "Madela" (pp. 91-92). See also Alice Cary's "Rosalie" (Poems,

Boston, 1855, pp. 171-73).

125. Poems (Boston, 1847), PP- 80-81. The first stanza is quoted. Cf.

Bayard Taylor's "Moan, Ye Wild Winds" and "The Mid-Watch" of Poems

of the Orient (pp. 92, 197-98), and William Ellery Channing's "Mariana"

(Poems, Boston, 1847, PP- 1 4 2_ 43)- Annuals and magazines contain numbers

of poems which sound like parodies of "Mariana." See "Marianne" by

W. H. Carpenter (Godey's Lady's Book, XXVI, 127, March, 1843), "Elea-

nore" (Ladies' National Magazine, IV, 132, Oct., 1843), and "The Maiden's

Wail" by Oscar G. Hughan (The Book of the Boudoir, Boston, 1853, pp.

194-97). "Eleanore," signed "C," sounds like Chivers, who in 1843 was

contributing to the Ladies' National Magazine, but the poem has not been

assigned to him.

126. Aldrich, op. cit., pp. 35-36. The first stanza is quoted.

127. Boker, The Podesta's Daughter and Other Poems (Philadelphia,

1852), pp. 138-39. The poem first appeared in an annual for 1849: The

Book of Pearls (New York), pp. 223-24. The first stanza is quoted. The last

line was repeated as a refrain in all four stanzas. Cf. "Oenone" by Howard

H. Caldwell (Poems, Boston, 1858, pp. 109-18).

128. Poems (Boston, 1847), pp. 13-25. The second stanza is quoted.

129. Poems (Boston, 1855), pp. 75-78. The first stanza is quoted. Cf.

Aldrich 's "The Golden Island" (op. cit., pp. 121-23), Stoddard's "The Castle

in the Air" (Poems, Boston, 1852, pp. 3-20), and Hirst's "On a Summer

Night" (The Penance of Roland and Other Poems, p. 81). Several reviewers

of George William Curtis's Nile Notes of a Howadji noted parallels be-

tween passages of Curtis's prose and Tennyson's "The Lotos-Eaters" (see

John Esten Cooke, "A Handful of Autumn Leaves: from the Lowlands of

Virginia," Southern Literary Messenger, XVIII, 714, Dec, 1852 — for assign-

ment to Cooke, see Beaty, op. cit., p. 166; and see also an anonymous

article, "George W. Curtis," National Magazine, IV, 28, Jan., 1854).

130. "The Sea-Fairies" first appeared in the 1833 Poems, and "The

Merman" and "The Mermaid" in Poems, Chiefly Lyrical. See Works, I,

192-94, 210-15.

131. Poems (Boston, 1847), pp. 125-26. The first stanza is quoted.

132. Romances, Lyrics and Songs, pp. 142-44. The first stanza is quoted.

Cf. Christopher P. Cranch's "The Sweet-Flower" and "The Ocean" (Poems,

Philadelphia, 1844, pp. 21-23, 67-69) and Stoddard's "The Song of the

Syrens" (Songs of Summer, p. 8).

133. New York, 1849, pp. 8-12.

134. For the four poems specifically referred to, see the Saturday Eve-

ning Post, Sept. 21, 1850; Aldrich, op. cit., pp. 129-30; Alice Cary, Lyra

and Other Poems, pp. 23-24; and Clarence May, The Book of the Boudoir

(Boston, 1853), pp. 302-03.

135. "William Ellery Channing," Graham's Magazine, XXIII, 113-17

(Aug., 1843); see Poe's Works, XI, 174-90.

[Chapter V] NOTES 243

136. Review of Lowell's Poems (1849), VI, 35 (Jan. 12, 1850).

137. Review of Lowell's Poems (1844), North American Review, LVIII,

286 (April, 1844). The review is unsigned; for its assignment to Felton, see

William Cushing, Index to the North American Review (Cambridge, Mass.,

1878), p. 66.

138. Letter to Ferdinand J. Dreer, Dec. 15, i860, in Townsend, op. cit.,

p. 118.

139. See Townsend, op. cit., pp. 75, 113, 118; John R. Tait, "Reminis-

cences of a Poet-Painter," Lippincott's Magazine, XIX, 320 (March, 1877);

and I. C. Keller, "Thomas Buchanan Read," University of Pittsburgh

Bulletin, XXIX, 1-4 (Jan., 1933).

140. Letter to Ferdinand J. Dreer, Feb. 5, 1858, in Townsend, op. cit.,

p. 113.

141. Tennyson wrote to Charles Stearns Wheeler just after Wheeler's

arrival in Europe in 1842, "I do not fear that you will bring among us the

spirit of Fenimore Cooper" (MS letter, Nov., 1842, Widener Collection,

Harvard College Library).

142. Arthur Hugh Clough praised the bust to Emerson in a letter of

March 23, 1857, and suggested "you ought to buy it in America" (Emerson-

Clough Letters, ed. Howard F. Lowry and Ralph L. Rusk, Cleveland, 1934,

letter No. 30). Liking Clough's suggestion, Emerson forwarded the letter

to James Elliot Cabot with the recommendation that the matter be brought

to the notice of the Library Committee of the Boston Athenaeum (letter,

May 8, 1857, in Emerson's Letters, V, 75). On February 22, 1858, Woolner

wrote to Mrs. Alfred Tennyson that a Dr. Bellows of Boston [doubtless

Henry W. Bellows, Unitarian minister and scholar] wished to buy the bust

and even felt "inclined to buy it unseen, having heard so much about [it]

from Emerson" (Amy Woolner, Thomas Woolner, R. A., London, 1917,

p. 143). It was in reply to this letter that Mrs. Tennyson wrote Woolner

on February 25, 1858, expressing her own disapproval of the bust's leaving

England and quoting Alfred as saying "tell him not to part with that to

Americaf;] he is sure to find a purchaser in England" (ibid., p. 145).

143. Phillips, op. cit., p. 1606.

144. First published in the Examiner, No. 2297, p. 86 (Feb. 7, 1852), it

was not included in any editions of Tennyson's Works till thirty years later,

when the two stanzas in praise of America were deleted. It seems that

American newspapers and magazines would have reprinted the poem from

the Examiner, and doubtless some did, but no instances have been found.

145. Even Read spoke of Tennyson's cordiality to him personally (letter

to Ferdinand J. Dreer, Feb. 5, 1858, in Townsend, op. cit., p. 113).

146. Journals, VII, 444-47 (May 6?, 1848).

147. See letter, Tennyson to Tuckerman, July, 1855, quoted in Witter

Bynner's introduction to The Sonnets of Frederick Goddard Tuckerman

(New York and London, 1931), pp. 28-29.

148. Letter to his brother Edward, quoted in Bynner, op. cit., pp. 26-

27. The manuscript is now in the possession of Tuckerman's grand-daugh-

ter, Mrs. Orton Loring Clarke, of Amherst, Massachusetts.

149. See Bynner, op. cit., pp. 26-30.

150. Letter to a Mrs. Eckley, June 10, 1873, quoted in ibid., p. 30.

151. See Taylor, At Home and Abroad (New York, 1889), pp. 445-46;

244 NOTES [Chapter VI]

and Hansen-Taylor and Scudder, op. cit., I, 333-34. Taylor's letter to

Boker, undated, is quoted in Hansen-Taylor and Scudder, I, 334.

152. Thomas Wentworth Higginson's account of the experience of his

Harvard friend, William Henry Hurlbut (Letters and Journals of Thomas

Wentworth Higginson, p. 33). Hurlbut visited England in 1850 (see ibid.,

PP- 29-33).

153. Entry of July 19, 1853, in Madame Le Vert's journal, Souvenirs of

Travel (Mobile, 1857), I, 79.

154. For the entire account of Hawthorne's experience, see entry of

July 30, 1857, in his journal (The Heart of Hawthorne's Journals, ed.

Newton Arvin, Boston and New York, 1929, pp. 241-45).

155. Fields, Yesterdays with Authors (Boston, 1872), p. 81.

156. The letter, dated by Taylor "June, 1857," is reproduced in James

Grant Wilson, "Thackeray in the United States," Century Magazine,

LXIII, 337 (Jan., 1902).

Chapter VI

1. "Alfred Tennyson," VI, 390 (Oct., 1855).

2. "Tennyson's Maud as a Work of Art," Yale Literary Magazine, XXIV,

89 (Dec, 1858).

3. The Boston Daily Evening Transcript for July 31, 1855, stated, "The

laureate has sent the proof sheets of 'Maud, and other Poems' to his Amer-

ican publishers, Messrs. Ticknor & Fields."

4. Norton's Literary Gazette, N. S., II, 259 (June 15, 1855).

5. From August 15 to 18 in the Boston Daily Evening Transcript, Ticknor

and Fields advertised the edition to be published "on Saturday, August 18."

A list of Ticknor and Fields editions sent to me by the Houghton Mifflin

Company in a communication of September 21, 1940, gives August 18 as

the date of publication.

6. Thomas Gold Appleton recorded in his journal on August 9, 1855,

that he, Longfellow, George William Curtis, and Julia Ward Howe were

enjoying reading "Maud" from proof sheets which Fields had sent them

(Susan Hale, Life and Letters of Thomas Gold Appleton, New York, 1885,

p. 294).

7. Taylor wrote to Fields in a letter of August 6, 1855, "Many thanks for

'Maud,' which came safely, and will be reviewed at once, probably in to-

morrow's paper" (Hansen-Taylor and Scudder, op. cit., I, 305). Maud, and

Other Poems was reviewed in the Tribune on August 7. At the head of the

review, the edition was listed as that of Ticknor and Fields, but, curiously,

the heading listed the number of pages of the book being reviewed as 154,

the number of pages in the first English edition. Ticknor and Fields's

edition had 160 pages. Fields evidently had sent Taylor some proof sheets

of the English edition.

8. See Albion, 4th Ser., XIV, 346 (July 21, 1855); Home Journal, July 21,

1855; Boston Daily Evening Transcript, August 2, 1855; etc.

9. Letter, Taylor to Fields, quoted in Hansen-Taylor and Scudder, op.

cit., I, 305.

10. Houghton Mifflin Company possesses complete, and presumably ac-

curate, records of the editions of Maud, and Other Poems. According to

[Chapter VI] NOTES 245

their communication to me (Sept. 21, 1940), the first printing, issued on

August 18, 1855, numbered 3000 copies, the second (later in August) num-

bered 2000, the third (September, 1855) numbered 2400, and the fourth

(March, 1856) numbered 1000.

11. The "Ode" was first published in pamphlet form on November 18,

1852, the day of the funeral of the Duke of Wellington; a second edition

in pamphlet form with greatly revised text was published in 1853 (Wise,

op. cit., I, 122-24)* The Literary World announced on April 9, 1853 (XII,

290), that Ticknor, Reed, and Fields had "in press" an American edition

of the "Ode," but no other trace of any kind can be found of such an

edition now. Probably it was projected but never published. "The Charge

of the Light Brigade" was first published in the London Examiner, No.

2445, p. 780 (Dec. 9, 1854).

12. For the "Ode," see Boston Daily Evening Transcript, Dec. 6, 1852;

Southern Literary Gazette, II, 284-85 (Dec. 18, 1852); Literary World, XII,

290-91 (April 9, 1853); etc. For "The Charge of the Light Brigade," see

New York Daily Tribune, Jan. 4, 1855; Albion, 4th Ser., XIV, 1 (Jan. 6,

1855); San Francisco Weekly Pacific, Feb. 2, 1855; etc.

13. See Memoir, I, 160-61; and Lounsbury, The Life and Times of

Tennyson, pp. 269-78. A MS copy of the "Stanzas" dated 1833 is still extant

(Wise, op. cit., I, 305). Professor Lounsbury gives a detailed discussion of

the relationship between the "Stanzas" and "Maud." Both poetically por-

trayed insanity in the form of mental hallucination, and in both the de-

mented lover was haunted by visions of his lost sweetheart and memories

of their former bliss together.

14. XXV, 487-88 (June, 1845). Sixty-six of the original 110 lines were

printed in the Knickerbocker and there bore the title, "My Early Love."

The poem also bore a note by the editor of the Knickerbocker stating that

the unpublished verses had been contributed by Bristed, who "had been

permitted to read them in the manuscript of the author." Professor Louns-

bury (The Life and Times of Tennyson, p. 277) used the fact that Bristed

at Cambridge thought the poems unpublished to prove that The Tribute

had been utterly forgotten, but Bristed knew that the poem had been

published, and he had not read them from manuscript. It was the editor,

Lewis Gaylord Clark, who was in error. As soon as Bristed received his copy

of the Knickerbocker for June, he wrote to Clark correcting the error: "I

did not read the poem in the author's manuscript; I have not the honor

of his acquaintance; and I am unable to recall to mind a syllable of my

communication, from which such an inference could have been legitimately

drawn. I expressly stated that the lines in question had been printed, but

subjoined as a reason for your reprinting them, that they were not gen-

erally known to the American public" ("Editor's Table," Knickerbocker,

XXVI, 288, Sept., 1845).

15. See Broadway Journal, I, 348 (May 31, 1845); New York Daily Tri-

bune, May 30, 1845; an d Harbinger, VI, 74 (Jan. 8, 1848). Although of

earlier date, the Journal and the Tribune acknowledged the Knickerbocker

for June as their source for the poem.

16. XLVI, 525-26 (Nov., 1855).

17. Letter, Lowell to Charles Eliot Norton, Aug. 11, 1855, in Lowell's

Works, XIV, 311.

246 NOTES [Chapter VI]

18. Letter to Mabel Lowell, July 1, 1869, in Lowell's Works, XV, 214-15.

19. Journals, VIII, 526 (1855).

20. LXXXI, 544 (Oct., 1855). For assignment of the unsigned review to

Hale, see Cushing, Index to the North American Review, p. 66.

21. Susan Hale, op. cit., p. 294.

22. Entry of August 5, 1855, quoted in Samuel Longfellow, Life of Henry

Wadsworth Longfellow (Boston and New York, 1891), II, 290. Note that

this is not the edition previously referred to. Because of variations in the

two, it has been necessary to use both the 1886 and the 1891 editions.

23. The journals of Julia Ward Howe quoted in Hildegarde Hawthorne,

The Poet of Craigie House (New York and London, 1936), p. 193.

24. Review of Aland, and Other Poems, VI, 318 (Sept., 1855). Compare a

later statement in the same periodical ("Alfred Tennyson," VI, 386, Oct.,

2 ^55) : " 'Maud' has the felicitous mannerism of Tennyson's earlier verse,

with the stern and vigorous thought of the later."

25. XL VI, 525 (Nov., 1855).

26. VIII, 87 (Dec. 15, 1855); for another review in the same periodical,

see X, 62 (Nov. 22, 1856).

27. See reviews in Southern Literary Messenger, XXI, 639 (Oct., 1855);

and the Boston Daily Evening Transcript, Dec. 19, 1855.

28. XXI, 639 (Oct., 1855). '

29. Nov. 13, 1855. See also Putnam's Magazine, VI, 388-89 (Oct., 1855).

30. MS letter, Tuckerman to Tennyson, October 22, 1855, Harvard Col-

lege Library. "Maud" is extremely unorthodox in its versification. It has

no set stanza form. The lines vary in length from three to five stresses, and

iambic, trochaic, dactylic, and anapaestic meters are all represented. See

J. F. A. Pyre, op. cit., pp. 189-95.

31. "Editor's Easy Chair," Harper's Monthly Magazine, XI, 705 (Oct.,

1855). From 1853 to 1859 the "Editor's Easy Chair" was handled by Curtis

and Donald G. Mitchell (Mott, op. cit., II, 389). William Dean Howells

several times referred to this item as Curtis's. See Howells's essay on Tenny-

son in My Literary Passions (New York, 1895), pp. 150-64.

32. My Literary Passions, p. 153.

33. Ibid., pp. 155-57. Cf- : "Like every other great poet he [Tennyson]

somehow expressed the feeling of his day, and I suppose that at the time

he wrote "Maud" he said more fully what the whole English-speaking

race were then dimly longing to utter than any English poet who has lived."

Tennyson was always Howells's favorite: "But when I think over all the

other poets I have read, he is supreme above them in his response to some

need in me that he has satisfied so perfectly" (ibid.).

34. "New Poetry, English and American," Dec. 19, 1855. This review of

Hiawatha, Maud, and Browning's Men and Women was signed "W."

35. Harper's Monthly Magazine, XII, 262 (Jan., 1856). This item was

doubtless by Curtis.

36. New York Daily Times, Nov. 13, 1855. See also Graham's Magazine,

XLVII, 371 (Oct., 1855).

37. Albion, 4th Ser., XIV, 417 (Sept. 1, 1855). See also "Tennyson's

Maud," an amusing dialogue between the fictitious character, Jeremy

Short, and the editor in Peterson's Magazine XXVIII, 307-09, Nov., 1855).

Jeremy Short vigorously attacked the poem, and the editor defended it.

[Chapter VI] NOTES 247

Jeremy Short complained especially of "Maud's" irregular versification:

if Tennyson "had stuck to legitimate metres," he "might have made the

poem better."

38. New York Daily Times, Nov. 13, 1855; "The British Periodicals,"

Theological and Literary Journal, VIII, 528 (Jan., 1856); and "The Assem-

bly of Extremes," Crayon, III, 31 (Jan., 1856).

39. Graham's Magazine, XL VII, 371 (Oct., 1855).

40. Home Journal, Sept. 15, 1855, and Oct. 27, 1855. William J. Grayson

wrote in July, 1857, of the "poem, which to some readers, is Tennyson's

'Maud,' but to others is Tennyson's 'Maudlin' " ("What Is Poetry," Rus-

sell's Magazine, I, 331. Guy A. Cardwell, op. cit., p. 378, assigns this un-

signed article to Grayson).

41. Albion, 4th Ser., XIV, 417 (Sept. 1, 1855).

42. "The Assembly of Extremes," Crayon, III, 31 (Jan., 1856).

43. LX, 135 (Jan., 1856). In its eight-page review of six books of poetry,

including Maud, and Other Poems, this was the only sentence which the

Examiner devoted to Tennyson's book.

44. "The British Periodicals," IX, 352 (Oct., 1856); see also same title,

VIII, 528 (Jan., 1856).

45. O. J. Victor, review of Maud, and Other Poems, XVIII, 422 (July,

1858). See also Bibliotheca Sacra, XII, 851 (Oct., 1855).

46. 4th Ser., XIV, 417 (Sept. 1, 1855).

47. XXI, 638-39 (Oct., 1855). Jackson (op. cit., p. 125) doubtfully assigns

the review to Thompson.

48. "An English and an American Poet," American Phrenological Jour-

nal, XXII, 90-91 (Oct., 1855). The review was included as Whitman's in

In Re Walt Whitman, ed. Horace L. Traubel, Richard Maurice Bucke, and

Thomas B. Harned (Philadelphia, 1893), pp. 27-32. In later years Whit-

man and Tennyson became great admirers of one another. Whitman sent

Tennyson an autographed copy of the Leaves; Tennyson invited Whitman

to visit him on the Isle of Wight; and the two praised one another's poetry.

See Memoir, II, 343-45, 424; Tennyson and His Friends, p. 203; and Harold

Blodgett, Walt Whitman in England (Ithaca, N.Y., 1934), pp. 122-35.

49. Crayon, III, 30-32 (Jan., 1856).

50. Tennyson and His Friends, p. 359.

51. English and Scottish Sketches. By an American (London, 1857), p. 157.

52. Letter to Arthur Hugh Clough, August 20, 1855, in Letters of Charles

Eliot Norton, I, 130-31. Norton was privileged to read Hiawatha several

months before its publication in December, 1855. Another of Longfellow's

friends, also reading the poem in manuscript, wrote that it was "the very

antipodes of Tennyson's Maud, which is a poem of the present day, very

poetical, very morbid, irreligious and painful" (unidentified "private

letter" quoted in the Crayon, II, 121, Aug. 22, 1855). George William Curtis

wrote Longfellow on December 17, 1855, concerning his favorite poems

which he used in his attacks upon stupid and severe critics of poetry: "My

battle-cry has been changed from 'Maud' to "Hiawatha' — and I have bat-

tered the enemy with knotted clubs" (MS letter, Craigie House Papers).

53. "Editor's Table," XL VII, 360-61 (Oct., 1855).

54. August 6, 1855, quoted in Hansen-Taylor and Scudder, op. cit., I, 305.

55. "Alfred Tennyson," National Magazine, IX, 415 (Nov., 1856).

248 NOTES [Chapter VI]

56. Letter to his mother, Nov. 3, 1857, quoted in Stedman and Gould,

op. cit., p. 143.

57. Review of Maud, and Other Poems, North American Review, LXXXI,

545 (Oct., 1855). A particularly ingenious justification of the peculiar varia-

tions of versification in "Maud" appeared in the "Editor's Table" of

Graham's Magazine (XLVIII, 71, Jan., 1856): Tennyson had created that

"rough-and-tumble kind of hand-gallop" in order to throw the horde of

imitators off his track.

58. Harper's Monthly Magazine, XII, 262 (Jan., 1856).

59. "Editor's Easy Chair," Harper's Monthly Magazine, XI, 705 (Oct.,


60. North American Review, LXXXI, 544-45 (Oct., 1855).

61. Like the American, the British criticism of "Maud" was rather

sharply divided. Some reviews approved, but others gave the harshest

condemnation. Cf.: "And even seen in the light of the most reverential

criticism, the effect of 'Maud' cannot be favorable to Tennyson's fame.

Here and there only it contains a few lines in which he does not fall below

himself. With these slight exceptions, he is everywhere saying, if not some-

thing that would be better left unsaid, something that he had already said

better; and the finest sentiments that animate his other poems are entirely

absent" {Westminster Review, N. S., VIII, 597, Oct., 1855). "Besides, as we

have already observed, the rhythm is sometimes rough, if it is not actually

imperfect, and the sentiment is unpoetic and commonplace, if it be not

something worse than that — actually vulgar" (Dublin University Magazine,

XLVI, 339, Sept., 1855). ". . . it ["Maud"] must always stand as a heavy

item on the debtor side of his [Tennyson's] reputation account" {National

Review, I, 404, Oct., 1855).

62. Probably the stricture most oft-repeated in the British journals was

the objection to Tennyson's approval of war (see Athenaeum, No. 1449,

p. 893, Aug. 4, 1855; Bentley's Miscellany, XXXVIII, 264, Sept., 1855;

Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, LXXVIII, 319, Sept., 1855; etc.),

and, curiously, this objection appeared rarely in America. The few instances

of it were greatly outweighed by defenses of Tennyson's attitude, such as

that in the Graham's review (quoted above). Those who were not willing to

go so far as a blanket approval of war, set about showing that Tennyson was

advocating a peculiar kind of war and only certain attributes of it (see

Putnam's Magazine, VI, 390, Oct., 1855; Harper's Monthly Magazine, XI,

701, Oct., 1855; New York Independent, VII, 48, Feb. 7, 1856; Yale Literary

Magazine, XXIV, 90-92, Dec, 1858; etc.).

63. See Memoir, I, 393-412. Although biographers have not emphasized

the misunderstanding of The Princess as they have that of "Maud," it seems

that on the basis of the British reviews, The Princess better deserves the

title of the most persecuted. Several little-noticed British reviews of "Maud"

were highly laudatory. Note the estimate in the Spectator, "As a whole,

Maud is perfectly intelligible in its action, the character of the autobiog-

raphic hero is well marked, and the changes of passion are indicated with

a dramatic force and singleness of aim which Mr. Tennyson has never

before reached" (XXVII, pp. 813-14, Aug. 4, 1855). See also the encomium

in the Examiner, "Containing hardly a weak line, full of deep feeling and

purpose, exquisitely musical, and instinct with the subtlest perceptions of

[Chapter VI] NOTES 249

the poet, Maud impresses us as one of the most perfect works of the Lau-

reate" (No. 2479, p. 484, Aug. 4, 1855). No such statements as these have

been found in British reviews of The Princess during the first two years

after its publication.

64. In reply to a letter from Fields, Tennyson wrote, Oct. 26, 1855, "The

English Press has (as you remark being [sic] 'stupid' enough: but I have as

far as I know, always been attacked in a similar fashion whenever I have

put forth a fresh publication. This time the assault has been a little harder

than usual" (MS letter, James T. Fields Autograph Album, Harvard Col-

lege Library).

65. MS letter, Tuckerman to Tennyson, October 22, 1855, Harvard Col-

lege Library. The review of Maud, and Other Poems in Blackwood's

(LXXVIII, 311-21, Sept., 1855) was one of the most severe of the British


66. See reviews in London Times, Nov. 15, 1852; Athenaeum, No. 1308,

p. 1263 (Nov. 20, 1852); Literary Gazette, No. 1870, pp. 852-53 (Nov. 20,

1852); etc.

67. II, 284-85 (Dec. 18, 1852).

68. II, 365 (Nov. 27, 1852).

69. I, 108 (Jan., 1853).

70. Nov. 22, 1854; Jan. 4, 1855. Upon reading the note objecting to his

statement, the correspondent recanted (Tribune, Feb. 20, 1855).

71. Autobiography, p. 261.

72. "Editor's Table," XLVI, 276-77 (March, 1855).

73. MS letter, Tennyson to Tuckerman, July, 1855 (Harvard College

Library): "You will find in my little volume 'The Charge of the Light

Brigade' with the 'blunder'd' that offended you & others, omitted." In the

introduction to his edition of Tuckerman's Sonnets, Witter Bynner printed

the letter and read the word blunder'd incorrectly as blunders (p. 29). The

Knickerbocker noted that "many" objected to the line (review of Poems

by Erastus W. Ellsworth, XLVI, 291, Sept., 1855).

74. "Editor's Table," XXVII, 252 (March, 1855).

75. "Tennyson's Battle Ode," Jan. 16, 1855. The article was signed "Philo-

Tennyson." Ferdinand C. Ewer wrote, in the "Editor's Table" of his

Pioneer; or, California Monthly Magazine (III, 279-80, June, 1855), one of

the strongest encomiums that "The Charge of the Light Brigade" received.

Ewer contrasted at length Tennyson's "immortal poem" and A. B. Meek's

imitation, "Balaklava," cited above, which he thought to be by Alexander

Smith. For attempting to write in competition with Tennyson, said Ewer,

Smith deserved "to be put into the penitentiary."

76. For the many textual variations, see Wise, op. cit., I, 143-48. A few

days after the appearance of Maud, and Other Poems, Tennyson became

dissatisfied with the second version and published a third, in pamphlet

form (ibid.).

77. "Editor's Table," XXXII, 219 (Sept., 1857); and review of Maud,

and Other Poems, Nov. 13, 1855. Putnam's Magazine (VI, 391, Oct., 1855)

compared the revisions to the unforgivable "pranks he [Tennyson] played

with the 'Lady of Shalott,' " but concluded that none of his revisions had

ever been "more unfortunate" than those of "The Charge of the Light


250 NOTES [Conclusion]

78. North American Review, LXXXI, 546 (Oct., 1855).

79. Putnam's Magazine, VI, 390 (Oct., 1855).

80. Letter to his mother, Nov. 3, 1857, quoted in Stedman and Gould,

op. cit., I, 143.


1. "Tennyson," International Review, IV, 418 (May, 1877).

2. Letter to James T. Fields, Aug. 12, 1859, quoted in Samuel Longfellow,

op. cit. (1886 ed.), II, 341.

3. See Ticknor and Fields's advertisement of the Idylls of the King in the

Boston Daily Evening Transcript, Aug. 12, 1859. Both Ticknor and Fields

and another Boston publisher, J. E. Tilton, published editions of Enoch

Arden in 1864. Houghton Mifflin Company's letter of September 21, 1940,

to me lists 40,000 copies of the Ticknor and Fields edition as printed dur-

ing the first year. Tilton's edition of Enoch Arden was one of the earliest

American editions of Tennyson issued by a publisher other than Ticknor

and Fields. The North American Review (C, 306-07, Jan., 1865) severely

reprimanded Tilton for publishing his edition. He had "committed this

dishonorable action knowingly," for Tennyson had publicly declared that

Ticknor and Fields were his authorized American publishers. Since there

was no law by which Tilton could be punished, the Review hoped that

booksellers and bookbuyers would refuse to handle Tilton's edition.

4. Hamilton W. Mabie, "The Influence of Tennyson in America," Review

of Reviews, American Edition, VI, 556 (Dec, 1892). The tremendous

popularity of Tennyson among the uneducated in America at the time of

his death is discussed at length in Cornelius Weygandt, The Time of

Tennyson (New York and London, 1936), pp. 99-104.

5. G. E. Woodberry, Atlantic Monthly, LVII, 425-26 (March, 1886).

6. Victorian Poets (Boston, 1875), p. 160.

7. See Lowell's review of Enoch Arden, North American Review, XCIX,

626 (Oct., 1864), and J. C. Hey wood, How They Strike Me, These Authors

(Philadelphia, 1877), pp. 126-47.

8. "Tennyson," International Review, IV, 418 (May, 1877).

9. "The Influence of Tennyson in America," Review of Reviews, VI, 556

(Dec, 1892).


"Adeline," 20, 30, 32, 60, 210, 213,


Agnew, Mary, 221

"Aileen Aroon" (Mulchinock), 117

Albion, 11, 72, 79, 85, 137, 170, 171,

172, 173, 175, 176, 178, 179, 180,

181, 206, 218, 223, 225, 238, 244,

245, 246, 247

Aldrich, James, 5, 23-24, 32, 208, 209

Aldrich, Thomas Bailey, 111, 115,

119-20, 238, 239, 240, 242

Alexander, Charles, 27

Alford, Henry, 232

Alger, W. R., 86-87, 181

"All Things Will Die," 236

America?! Literary Magazine (Al-

bany, N. Y., and Hartford, Conn.),

63, 69, 172, 221, 238

American Monthly Magazine, 12

American Monthly Musical Review,


American Museum of Literature and

the Arts, 23

American Phrenological Journal,

179, 247

American Whig Review, 48, 79-80,

170, 172, 173, 175, 176, 219, 223,

224, 226, 228, 235

Anacreon, 46

"Anacreontics," 236

Angel in the House, The (Patmore),


Anglo-American, 223

Anthologies, 100-03, 2 35

Appleton, Frances (Mrs. H. W.

Longfellow), 8-9, 204

Appleton, Thomas Gold, 133, 244

"Arctic, Voyager, The" (Timrod),


Arcturus, 10, 13, 31-32, 35, 168, 209,

211, 216

Arnim, Bettina von, 204

Arthur's Home Magazine, 181, 232

"As thro' the Land at Eve We

Went," 71

"Ask Me No More," 71, 72, 102, 157,


At Home and Abroad (Taylor), 243

Athenaeum (London), 4, 168, 172,

177, 222, 230, 236, 248, 249

Atlantic Monthly, 204, 250

Aytoun, William Edmonstone, 54,


Bailey, Philip James, 225

"Balaklava" (Howe), 118, 241

"Ballad, A" (Lowell), 16-17

"Ballad of Oriana, The," 16, 19, 30,

32, 46, 55, 104, 117, 177, 210, 240

Ballads and Other Poems (Longfel-

low), 206

Ballads and Songs (Mulchinock),

l *?» 237-38, 240, 241

Barhydt, D. Parish, 238

Baring, William B., 204

Barrett, Elizabeth, 13, 49, 56, 92,

215, 229

Bartol, Cyrus A., 53

Bassvecchi, P. O., 161-62

Beethoven, Ludwig van, 61, 236

"Beggar Maid, The," 157

Beggar's Opera, The (Gay), 201

"Belfry of Bruges, The" (Longfel-

low), 105

Bellows, Henry W., 243

Bells: A Collection of Chimes, The

(Aldrich), 238, 239, 240, 242

Benjamin, Park, 5, 14, 32

Bentley's Miscellany, 248

Benton, Joel, 92, 230

Bible, The, 83

Bibliotheca Sacra, 179, 247

Bird and the Bell with Other Poems,

The (Cranch), 61, 220

"Birds in the High Hall-garden,"




"Birth of the Prophet, The" (Tay-

lor), 106-07

Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine,

10-11, 28, 142, 167, 173, 179, 180,

203, 205, 222-23, 248, 249

Blockley, John, 158, 160, 161

Blumenthal, Jacques, 162

Boker, George Henry, 84-85, 94, 1 19-

20, 126-27, 226, 242

Bon Gaultier (Aytoun and Martin),

54, 218

Book of Romances, Lyrics and Songs

(Taylor), 106, 236, 242

Boone, Daniel, 114-15

Boott, Francis, 158, 160

Boston Daily Advertiser, 169, 212,


Boston Daily Atlas, 58-59, 171

Boston Daily Chronotype, 57, 58, 171

Boston Daily Courier, 39, 169, 209,


Boston Daily Evening Transcript,

38, 75, 77, 129-30, 131, 135, 143,

145, 167, 168, 169, 171, 172, 175,

176, 177, 178, 180, 182, 209, 210,

211, 218, 219, 220, 222, 224, 225,

227, 228, 230, 231, 232, 234, 235,

241, 244, 245, 246, 250

Boston Daily Evening Traveller, 209

Boston Daily Times, 39, 169

Boston Miscellany of Literature and

Fashion, 169, 208, 212

Boston Morning Post, 38-39, 169,

212, 216

Boston Weekly Museum, 174, 176,

228, 229

Bradford, George, 125

Bradley, A. C., 148

"Break, Break, Break," 72, 95, 100,

101, 102, 103, 115, 158, 164, 213,


Brinton, D. G., 181

Bristed, Charles Astor, 48, 66, 91,

131, 170, 172, 215, 219, 245

British Quarterly Review, 171

Broadway Journal, 170, 171, 208,

212, 214, 216, 219, 245

"Brook, The," 96, 130, 145-46, 157,


Brookfield, William Henry, 125

Brooks, N. C, 23

Brother Jonathan, 14, 39, 54, 168,

169, 212, 219

Browning, Elizabeth Barrett, see

Barrett, Elizabeth

Browning, Robert, 9, 49, 93, 177,

209, 230, 231, 246

Brownson, Orestes A., 78-79, 174, 226

Brownson's Quarterly Review, 78-

79, »74

Bryant, William Cullen, 89, 92, 207,

230, 234

"Bugle Song, The" (Havens), 108

Bulfinch, Stephen G., 102

Bulfinch, Thomas, 102

Bulwer-Lytton, Edward George

Earle Lytton, 52

"Burden of Unrest" (Stoddard), 107

Burton's Gentleman's Magazine, 168,

207, 208

Butler, Frances Ann Kemble, see

Kemble, Fanny

Butler, Pierce, 9

Bynner, Witter, 243, 249

Byron, George Gordon, Lord, 14,

16, 46, 52, 91, 93, 101, 149, 201, 214,

215, 230, 235

Cabot, James Elliot, 243

Caldwell, Howard H., 242

Campbell, Killis, 205, 208

Campbell, Thomas, 27, 145

Canova, Antonio, 204

Carew, Thomas, 31

Carlyle, Thomas, 33, 49, 98, 124, 204,

210, 211, 217

Carpenter, W. H., 242

Cary, Alice, 119, 242

Century Magazine, 214, 244

Chambers's Edinburgh Journal, 97-


Channing, Edward T., 9, 205

Channing, William Ellery (the el-

der), 78, 204

Channing, William Ellery (the

younger), 115, 121, 123, 214, 242

Channing, William H., 213

Chapin, Edwin H., 201

"Charge of the Light Brigade, The,"



56, 103, 118, 130-31, 143, 144-45'

157, 178, 241, 245, 249

Chaucer, Geoffrey, 231, 235

Chivers, Thomas Holley, 44-45, 90,

104-05, 107, 173, 214, 229, 235, 236,

237, 240, 241, 242

Chorley, Henry F., 229

Christian Examiner, 6, 14, 28-30, 33,

45"4 6 > 53' 8 2» i3 6 > l68 > l6 9> x 74>

180, 181^ 203, 210, 214, 215, 227,


Christian Parlor Magazine, 170, 171,

173, 175, 224

Christian Register (Boston), 83, 173

Christian Review, 78, 83, 175

"Christine" (Read), 106

"Circumstance," 165

"Claribel," 27, 29, 95, 218

Clark, Lewis Gaylord, 69, 159, 223,


Clarke, James Freeman, 5, 6, 27, 42,

168, 203

Class Poem (Lowell), 202, 209

Clements, H. H., 171, 230, 232

Cleveland, Charles D., 102

Cleveland, Henry R., 215

Clough, Arthur Hugh, 243, 247

Coleridge, Hartley, 223-24

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, 13, 16, 93,

95, 100, 205, 207

Colophon, 206

Col ton, George H., 209

Columbian Lady's and Gentleman's

Magazine, 48, 170

"Columbus" (Lowell), 113

"Come into the Garden, Maud," 56,

73, 118, 133-34, 158

"Come Not, When I Am Dead," 154,


Coming of the Mammoth and Other

Poems (Hirst), 123, 239, 240, 241

Converse, Charlie C, 161

Conway, Moncure Daniel, 226

Cooke, George Willis, 204, 207, 211,

212, 213, 220

Cooke, John Esten, 70, 78, 118, 174,

224, 239, 241, 242

Cooke, Philip Pendleton, 231

Cooper, James Fenimore, 110, 125,

238, 243

Coppee, Henry, 100

Courtship of Miles Standish and

Other Poems (Longfellow), 234

Cranch, Christopher P., 61, 109, 220,


Crayon, 180, 181, 230, 247

Croker, John Wilson, 10, 11, 12, 25,

45, 46, 51, 167, 206, 214

Cunningham, Allan, 234

Curtis, George William, 50, 133, 134,

141, 179, 180, 212, 213, 217, 220,

242, 244, 246, 247

Cutting, S. S., 78

Daguerreotype, 172

"Daisy, The," 130, 157

Dante, 13, 77

Darwin, Charles, 227

"Daughter, The" (Cary), 119

"Death of the Old Year, The," 8,

22-23, 28, 32, 84, 103, 112, 117, 177,

210, 234, 238, 240

Demeter and Other Poems, 149

Democratic Review, 40, 56, 80, 169,

170, 172, 174, 175, 214, 216, 218,

239, 240

Dempster, William R., 69-70, 159,

223, 224

Derby, J. C, 211, 212

"Deserted House, The," 23, 27, 154,

23^ 235

Dial, 9, 14, 30, 35, 40-41, 42, 168,

169, 170, 204, 207, 211, 213

Dickens, Charles, 208, 211

Dickson, Ellen, 158

"Dirge, A," 7

Ditson, Oliver, 69, 85, 157-62, 223,


Donne, John, 31

"Dora," 41, 115, 213

Drama of Exile and Other Poems, A

(Barrett), 56

Drawings and Timings (Street), 115

Dream of a Day and Other Poems

(Percival), 236

"Dream of Fair Women, A," 30, 36,


"Dreaming Girl, The" (Aldrich), 24

Dreer, Ferdinand J., 234, 243

Dresel, Otto, 72, 158, 161



Dryden, John, 91-92, 201

Dublin University Magazine, 240,


Duyckinck, Evert A., 13, 31-32, 34-

35, 57, 75, 100, 168, 201, 202, 203,

216, 230, 234

Dwight, John Sullivan, 6, 7, 28-30,

34, 42, 60-61, 69-70, 168, 172, 203,

210, 211, 212, 213, 217, 220, 224

Divight's Journal of Music, 134, 224

"Dying Swan, The," 102

"Eagle, The," 56, 154, 230-31

Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Liter-

ature, Science and Art, 171, 172,

173, 174, 176, 178

Eclectic Review, 175, 222

Edinburgh Revieiv, 10, 170, 173, 180,

205, 216, 217, 223

"Edward Gray," 100

"Edwin Morris," 154

"Eleanore," 26, 104, 236

"Eleanore" (Hirst), 117

Eliza Cook's Journal, 175

Ellsworth, Erastus W., 249

Emerson, Charles, 203

Emerson, Edward Bliss, 203

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 5, 6-8, 9, 10,

26, 30, 33, 36, 38, 41-42, 44, 52, 77-

78, 88, 111, 125-26, 128, 132, 170,

202, 203-04, 205, 207, 210, 211, 212,

213, 217, 218, 226, 243

"Emily, Some Memories in the Glass

of Tennyson" (Parker), 55-56, 219

"English War-Song," 209

Englisliman's Magazine, 230

Enoch Arden and Other Poems, 147-

48, 229, 250

Eonchs of Ruby (Chivers), 235

Estray, The (Longfellow), 100

Evangeline (Longfellow), 222

Every Body's Album, 27-28, 168, 210

Ewer, Ferdinand C., 72, 178, 225,

232, 249

Examiner (London), 60, 172, 173,

179, 216, 220, 222, 225, 228, 243,

245, 248-49

"Farewell, A," 72, 117, 159, 181, 241

"Farewell" (Lowell), 19

Fashion (Mowatt), 219

"Fatima," 179

Felton, Cornelius C, 7, 45-46, 47,

81-82, 123, 169, 214-15, 218, 227

Festus (Bailey), 225

Fields, James T., 37, 57, 58, 71, 75-77,

97' 9 8 > 99» !28, 129, 130, 141, 142,

H5» 15*"57» 211, 217, 219, 220, 221,

225, 232, 233, 234, 244, 245, 249,


Finch, F. M., 173, 221

Fisher, George P., 175, 226

Fitzgerald, Edward, 33, 229

Foot-Prints (Stoddard), 122-23

Foreign Quarterly Review, 23

Forster, John, 74-75, 208, 216

Foster, Alice, 159

"Fragment, A," ["Where is the Giant

of the Sun, which stood"], 101, 163

Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspa-

per, 230

Fraser's Magazine, 171, 175, 223, 228,


Frothingham, Nathaniel L., 203

Fuller, Margaret, 6, 9, 14, 30, 40-41,

42, 50, 59, 168, 169, 204, 207, 213,

217, 219, 220

Furness, William Henry, 204

"Gardener's Daughter, The," 44,

115, 145, 165-66

Gay, John, 201

Gem, A Literary Annual for 1831,

The, 205, 236

Genius of the West, 180

Gentleman's Magazine (London), 3,


George Cruikshank's Omnibus, 54,


Gibson, Mary W. S., 239

Gibson, William, 112, 240

Gift-books, 101, 234-35, 242

Gilfillan, George, 171

"Go Not, Happy Day," 133, 159

Godey's Lady's Book, 64, 170, 209,

219, 221, 242

"Godiva," 41, 212

Godwin, Parke, 230

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 7,




Goldsmith, Oliver, 13

"Goose, The," 96, 100-01

Graham's Magazine, 10, 14, 32, 50,

52, 57> 59» 72, 81, 85, 140, 144, 169,

172, 173, 174, 177, 178, 179, 180,

181, 205, 206, 207, 212, 214, 215,

216, 219, 220, 221, 225, 231, 232,

236, 238, 240, 242, 246, 247, 248

"Grasshopper, The," 235

Grayson, William J., 91-92, 144, 230,


"Great and Small" (Stoddard), 111,


Greeley, Horace, 11, 32, 64, 216

Greenwood, Grace (Mrs. Sara Jane

Lippincott), 112, 238

Griswold, Rufus W., 10, 14, 47-48,

100, 169, 170, 205, 207, 208, 209,

212, 215, 223

Hadley, James, 66, 67-68, 173, 223

Hale, Edward Everett, 6-7, 131, 141-

42, 145, 179, 203, 246

Hale, Sarah J., 107-08

Hallam, Arthur Henry, 74-75, 83, 86,

9*» 125

Halleck, Fitz-Greene, 92-93, 100,


Handel, Georg Friedrich, 61

"Hands All Round," 125

Harbinger, 172, 203, 220, 224, 245

"Hark to the Shouting Wind" (Tim-

rod), 73, 115-16

Harper, J. W., Jr., 201

Harper's Monthly Magazine, 81, 174,

179, 180, 213, 227-28, 230, 246, 248

Harper's Weekly, 219

Hart, John S., 86, 174

"Haunted Palace, The" (Poe), 23

Havens, Charles E., 108, 178, 231,

232, 237

Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 125, 127-28,

211, 238, 244

Hawthorne, Mrs. Nathaniel, see Pea-

body, Sophia

Hayne, Paul Hamilton, 94, 121, 238

Heath, John Francis, 217

Hedge, F. H., 203

Hemans, Mrs. Felicia Dorothea, 27,

73, 100, 101, 235

Herbert, Lord, of Cherbury, 227

"Hesperides, The," 30

Hewitt, Mary E., 240

Heywood, J. C., 250

Hiawatha (Longfellow), 138, 139-41,

246, 247

Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 6,

9, 74, 102, 204-05, 225, 244

Hillard, George S., 15, 99-100, 155,

156, 207, 215, 234

Hiller, O. Prescott, 140

Hirst, Henry B., 59, 65, 107, 112-13,

117, 123, 172, 239, 240, 241, 242

Hogg's Instructor, 172, 178

Holden's Dollar Magazine, 172, 174,


Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 26, 84, 95,

96, 128, 177, 209, 232

Home Journal (New York), 58, 64,

85. 93' 99' m> !40> i? 2 , i74» !7 6 >

177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 220-21, 226,

228, 229, 231, 244, 247

"Home They Brought Her Warrior

Dead," 71

Homes and Haunts of the Most Emi-

nent British Poets (Howitt), 52

Hope, James Barron, 118, 239, 241

Horace, 7, 92

Home, R. H., 44, 51-52, 214, 215

Hosmer, W. H. C., 240

Hours of Idleness (Byron), 201

" 'How' and the 'Why,' The," 12

Howe, Julia Ward, 112, 115, 118,

133, 238, 244, 246

Ho wells, William Dean, 135, 246

Howitt, Mary, 229

Howitt, William, 52

Howitt's Journal, 223

Hughan, Oscar G., 242

Hunt, Leigh, 31, 90, 210

"Huntsman's Song," 240

Hurlbut, William Henry, 225, 244

Hutchinson, Abby, 69, 223

"I Sit Beneath the Sunbeam's Glow"

(Boker), 119

Idylls of the King, 73, 104, 137, 147-

48, 250

Illustrated Monthly Courier (Phila-

delphia), 59, 65, 172, 231



In Memoriam, 49, 74-89, 90, 95, 97,

101, 102, 105, 108-12, 131, 132, 147,

J 55> i5 6 "57' l6 4> 165, 173-78, 180,

181, 215, 224, 225-29, 231, 238

Independent (New York), 180, 219,

223, 226, 232, 248

International Magazine of Litera-

ture, Art and Science {Interna-

tional Weekly Miscellany), 77, 173,

175, 226, 229, 232, 238

International Review, 201, 214, 250

"Irene" (Lowell), 22, 208

Irving, Washington, 92, 101, 165,

224, 230

"Isabel," 22, 122, 182, 208, 210

"Isabel" (Lowell), 22

"Isabel" (Stoddard), 122

"Isadore" (Chivers), 104-05, 235, 236

"Island Home, The" (Story), 120

Jenks, Joseph William, 100

Jones, W. A., 216

Jonson, Ben, 213, 227

Kane, Elisha Kent, 118, 241

"Kate," 20, 32, 122, 210

"Kate" (anon.), 25, 209

"Kate" (Stoddard), 122

Keats, John, 13, 14, 16, 25, 26, 53,

65, 92, 93, 100, 207

Kemble, Fanny, 4, 8-9, 25-26, 40, 50,

170, 202, 204, 209, 212

Kemble, John M., 4

Kingsley, Charles, 223, 228

Knickerbocker, 47, 48, 50, 54, 69, 99,

131, 133, 169, 170, 171, 180, 181,

206, 208, 218, 219, 223, 224, 230,

234> 239, 240, 245, 249

Kossuth, Louis, 101, 115, 165

Ladies' National Magazine (Peter-

son's), 215, 231, 242

Ladies Repository, 136-37, 182

"Lady Clara Vere de Vere," 96

"Lady of Shalott, The," 6, 16, 19,

26, 30, 36, 40, 43, 95, 101, 116-17,

209, 220, 239, 249

Lady's World of Fashion (Peter-

son's), 169, 209, 210, 211, 212-13

Land We Love, 224

Landor, Walter Savage, 204

Latham, Henry, 237-38

"Laureate, The" (Bon Gaultier),

54, 218

Lawrence, William Roderick, 238

Lays and Ballads (Read), 236, 239

Lea, Henry Charles, 45, 46-47, 49,

52, 56, 170, 215, 216, 219

Leaves of Grass (Whitman), 138-39,

179, 247

Legare, James Mathewes, 221

Lennig, Thompson, 157

Leoni Di Monota and Other Poems

(Hope), 239, 241

"Letters, The," 130, 157

LeVert, Madame Octavia Walton,

127, 244

"Lift Up the Curtain of Thine

Eyes" (Lowell), 22

"Light and Shadow" (Story), 105-06

"Lilian," 6, 20-21, 24, 32, 54, 55, 60,

72, 101, 104, 122, 164, 210

"Lines I Sent with a Copy of Tenny-

son's 'In Memoriam' " (Green-

wood), 112

Lippincott's Magazine, 243

Literary American (New York), 233

Literary Gazette (London), 249

Literary Journal (Providence, R. I.),


Literary Souvenir (Lowell, Mass.),


Literary World, 57, 75, 77, 123, 172,

173' *74> *75> 2 7 6 ' *77> 220, 221,

224, 225, 227, 229, 232, 238, 245

Littell, Eliakim, 11

Littell's Living Age, 171, 172, 173,

177, 179, 180, 218, 225

Little, C. C, 33-34, 3 6 "37> 210

Living Authors of England, The

(Powell), 62, 221

Lockhart, John Gibson, 206

"Locksley Hall," 36, 41, 42, 43, 44,

54, 95, 96, 101, 104-09, 126, 138,

165, 182, 213, 230, 235-36, 23738,


London Leader, 178

London Review, 205

London Times, 87, 129, 175, 176-77,

225, 228, 249



Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 6, 7,

8, 13, 14, 22-23, 33' 5 6 > 57> 6 *> 72,

74, 81, 98, 100, 105, 111, 128, 133,

138, 140-41, 147, 158, 160, 168, 170,

180, 204, 206, 208, 210, 214, 215,

217, 219, 221, 233-34, 236, 244, 246,

247, 250

Longfellow, Samuel, 102, 217, 219,

221, 246, 250

Loring, G. B., 207

"Lost Hope," 210

"Lotos-Eaters, The," 16, 19-20, 30,

43, 95, 104, 120, 121, 181, 204, 207-

08, 212, 213, 228, 242

Lounsbury, Thomas R., 129, 182,

209, 211, 216, 219, 221, 228, 245

"Love and Death," 165

"Love and Duty," 115

"Love Thou Thy Land, with Love

Far-Brought," 164

Lowell, Anna C, 102

Lowell, James Russell, 5, 6, 13, 14-

22, 25, 33, 34-35, 53, 56, 59, 66-67,

77, 88-89, lo6 > ll 3> ll 5> 117. !22,

123, 128, 132, 148, 172, 202-03,

205, 207-08, 209, 210, 211, 217,

220, 226, 229, 236, 240, 243, 245,


Lyra and Other Poems (Cary), 242

Mabbott, Thomas Ollive, 201-02

Mabie, Hamilton W., 149, 250

McGuffey, William H., 102-03, 235

Macon Georgia Citizen, 90, 173

"Madeline," 20, 21, 121, 213, 236

Magnolia (Charleston, S. C), 92, 230

"Maid of Linden Lane, The"

(Read), 116-17

Mangan, James Clarence, 240

"Margaret," 20, 30, 32, 122, 210

"Mariana," 16-18, 22, 26, 32, 54, 95,

100, 101, 119, 165, 166, 210, 213,


"Mariana in the South," 16, 18

Marston, J. Westland, 172

Martial, 4, 201

Martin, Theodore, 54, 218

Martyr's Triumph, Buried Valley

and Other Poems (Mellen), 206

Marvell, Andrew, 31

Massachusetts Quarterly Review,

172, 220, 223

Massey, Gerald, 178

Mathews, Cornelius, 10, 31

"Maud," 88, 95, 129-42, 146, 147,

!55-5 6 > J 57> *59» !79> l8o > 181, 182,

226, 241, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248

Maud, and Other Poems, 49, 97,

129-46, 155, 156, 157, 178-80, 181,

182, 233, 244, 246, 247, 248, 249

"Maud Allinggale" (Aldrich), 119-


May, Clarence, 242

"May Queen, The," 29, 46, 69-70,

73> 95' 10 °' 101 ' 10 2> 103, 108, 117,

159, 160, 170, 210, 223, 224, 234,

235' 237

Meditations in America and Other

Poems (Wallace), 123, 239

Meek, Alexander Beaufort, 118, 241,


Mellen, Grenville, 206

Men and Women (Browning), 246

Meredith, Owen (E. R. B. Lytton),


"Mermaid, The," 32, 121, 242

"Merman, The," 54, 121, 210, 242

Merz, Charles J., 159

Methodist Quarterly Review, 176,


"Midnight Mass for the Dying

Year" (Longfellow), 22-23, 209,


Millard, Harrison, 72, 157

"Miller's Daughter, The," 5, 25, 29,

36, 46, 72, 159, 164, 206

Milnes, Richard Monckton, 88, 215,


Milton, John, 85, 86, 91, 92, 141,

146, 228

Mitchell, Donald G., 246

"Molly Gray" (Aldrich), 24

Monthly Religious Magazine (Bos-

ton), 83, 177, 226

Moore, Thomas, 12, 73, 93, 101, 235

Morpeth, Lord, 226

"Morte d'Arthur," 36, 43, 96, 100-

01, 112-13, 115, 213, 214, 219

Mott, Frank Luther, 210, 225, 227,


2 5 8


Mowatt, Anna Cora, 219

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 27, 61

Mulchinock, William Pembroke,

108, 117, 123, 237, 241

Museum of Foreign Literature and

Science, 11, 12, 167, 168

"Music of Nature, The" (Cranch),


"My Early Love," 170, 171

"Mvstic, The," 210

Nassau Literary Magazine (Prince-

ton College), 174, 221-22, 227, 234

National Magazine (New York), 171,

176, 177, 180, 181, 227, 231, 242,


National Review (London), 248

Nelson, Admiral Horatio, 143

New England Galaxy, 205, 210

New Englander, 48, 50, 80-81, 82-83,

170, 173, 174, 209, 223, 227, 228

New Orleans Sunday Delta, 241

New Spirit of the Age, A (Home),

5 l "52, 215

New Timon, The, 52-54, 218

New World, 5, 21, 32, 39, 169, 206,

208, 209, 212, 216, 230

"New Year's Eve," 29, 31, 32, 103,

210, 235

New York Atlas Magazine, 209

New York Daily Times, 134, 145,

177, 180, 181, 232, 246, 247

New York Daily Tribune, 39-40, 59,

81, 84, 130-32, 144, 167, 169, 170,

172, 174, 177, 178, 180, 212, 213,

216, 218, 219, 220, 224, 225, 227,

234, 244, 245, 249

New York Evening Post for the

Country, 168, 169, 212

New York Express, 234

New York Illustrated Magazine of

Literature and Art, 171, 230

New York Literary Gazette, 32, 210

New York Literary Gazette and

Journal of Belles Lettres, 206

New York Mirror, 32, 209, 214

New York Musical Review, 72, 161,


New York Recorder, 83-84, 175

New York Sunday Morning News,


New York Weekly Tribune, 169,


New Yorker, 11, 32, 216

News-Gong, 34, 168, 211

Nicolson, Harold, 201, 228

"Night-Watch" (Story), 119

Nile Notes of a Howadji (Curtis),


"No More," 101, 163, 236

"No More" (Story), 241

Noctes Ambrosianae (North), 10

North, Christopher (John Wilson),

7, 10, 11-12, 28, 39, 46, 51, 167,

203, 207

North American Miscellany, 175

North American Review, 15, 32, 49,

53' 13«» 1 79> l8l » 207, 228, 229,

231, 243, 246, 248, 249, 250

North British Review, 223, 228, 229

Norton, Caroline, 229

Norton, Charles Eliot, 140, 204, 210,

217, 226, 233, 245, 247

Norton's Literary Gazette, 244

"Nuremberg" (Longfellow), 105

"O Darling Room," 24, 53, 101, 165,

202, 206

"O Swallow, Swallow," 61, 71, 160

O'Connell, Daniel, 204

"Ode on the Death of the Duke of

Wellington," 118, 130, 143-44,

157' !7 6 -77> 241* 245

"Oenone," 16, 36, 43, 104, 119-20,


"On Receiving a Copy of Tenny-

son's Poems" (Hillard), 99-100,

155' !5 6

Orion (Home), 214

Orion (Penfield, Ga.), 48, 169, 205,


Ossoli, Margaret Fuller, see Fuller,


"Palace of Art, The," 209

Paradise Lost, 86, 141

Parker, H. W., 55, 219

Parker, J. C. D., 133-34, *5 8

Parker, Theodore, 26



Passion-Flowers (Howe), 239

Patmore, Coventry, 125, 232

Peabody, Elizabeth, 40, 203, 211, 212

Peabody, Sophia (Mrs. Nathaniel

Hawthorne), 6, 40, 203

Peel, Sir Robert, 52-53

Penance of Roland and Other

Poems, The (Hirst), 239, 242

Percival, James Gates, 105-06

Peterson's Magazine, 59, 64-65, 79,

145, 172, 174, 178, 180, 221, 234,

238, 246

Petrarch, 77, 82, 228

Philadelphia Visitor and Parlour

Companion, 209

Phillips, Mary E., 201, 206, 208, 213,

214, 220, 243

Pioneer; or, California Monthly

Magazine, 72, 178, 225, 231, 232,

237, 241, 249

Podesta's Daughter and Other

Poems (Boker), 242

Poe, Edgar Allan, 3-4, 10, 13, 22-23,

24, 42-45, 50, 56, 61, 70, 88, 98,

104-05, 114, 123, 125, 168, 169,

170, 171, 173, 174, 177, 201, 205,

206-07, 208, 209, 213, 214, 216,

219, 220-21, 234, 235-36, 239, 240,


Poems (1833), 4-35, 36, 40, 45, 95,

167, 168, 202, 204, 206, 207, 232,

235. 242

Poems (1842), 13, 14, 15, 22, 33-35,

36-56, 80-82, 87-88, 91, 95-96, 97,

104, 148, 153, 154, 168-71, 206, 212,

214, 215, 216, 217, 219, 223, 230,

233» 235, 239, 241

Poems by Two Brothers, 3-4, 201-

03, 240

Poems, Chiefly Lyrical, 4-35, 36, 40,

91, 167-68, 202, 207, 208, 209, 210,

231, 235, 236, 242

Poems of the Orient (Taylor), 106-

07, 236, 239, 242

"Poetic Principle, The" (Poe), 61,

174, 220-21

Poets and Poetry of America, The

(Griswold), 169, 205, 209

Poets and Poetry of America, A

Satire by Lavante, The, 205

Poets and Poetry of England (Gris-

wold), 47-48, 100, 170, 205, 215-


"Poet's Mind, The," 12, 165

"Poet's Song, The," 164

Pope, Alexander, 13, 14, 65, 91, 92,

93» 94

Powell, Thomas, 62, 221

Presbyterian Quarterly Review, 181,

182, 215, 231, 232

"Present Crisis, The" (Lowell), 106,


Preston, J. T. L., 224

Preston, Margaret Junkin, 224

Princess, The, 49, 56, 57-73, 76, 80,

87-88, 95, 97, 101, 113, 115, 118,

141-42, 143, 154, 156, 161, 164,

166, 171-73, 180, 219-23, 228-29,

248, 249

Prolusiones Academicae, 4

"Prometheus" (Lowell), 113

Prospective Review (London), 174

Putnam's Monthly Magazine, 129,

!33> !43-44> i7 6 > *77» l 1%> l 79> 181,

208, 218, 230, 232, 234, 246, 248,

249» 250

Quarterly Review, 11, 28, 45, 50,

167, 205, 206, 214, 216, 222, 223

"Queen of My Heart" (Chivers), 107

"Raven, The" (Poe), 105, 234, 235-


Ray, Luzerne, 170, 216

Read, Thomas Buchanan, 94, 98,

106, 116-17, 12 4, 231, 236, 241, 243

"Realm of Rest, The" (Hayne), 121

"Recollections of the Arabian

Nights," 44, 166

Reed, Henry, 52, 78, 217, 221, 226

Reed, Sampson, 204

Review of Reviews, 250

Rice, Stephen Spring, 125

Richards, William C, 216

Rienzi, Niccolo Gabrini, 86

"Ring Out, Wild Bells," 73, 85, 112,

160, 177, 235, 238

Rival Ladies, The (Dryden), 201

Rogers, Samuel, 90



Rolfe, William J., 5, 202, 203, 204,

207, 208, 209, 212

"Rosalind," 8, 20, 122, 204

"Rosaline" (Lowell), 18-19

"Rose" (Lowell), 21

Russell, John, 230

Russell's Magazine, 94, 181, 182, 215,

217, 230, 231, 239, 247

St. Lawrence and the Saguenay and

Other Poems (Sangster), 238

St. Leger, Harriet, 202, 209

St. Louis Daily Missouri Republi-

can, 219

"Saint Simeon Stylites," 113

San Francisco Daily Herald, 231

San Francisco Evening Bulletin, 181,

218, 231

San Francisco Weekly Pacific, 231,


Sangster, Charles, 112, 238

Sargent, Epes, 102, 103

Sartain's Magazine, 54, 85-86, 174,

218, 220-21, 239

Saturday Evening Post, 27, 179, 224,

225, 242

Saturday Museum (Philadelphia),

169, 205

Savannah Morning News, 174

Scott, Sir Walter, 91, 93, 100

Scudder, Horace Elisha, 202, 220,

221, 226, 229, 240, 244, 247

"Sea-Fairies, The," 20, 104, 121, 154,

231-32, 236, 242

"Sea-Side Musings" (Havens), 237

Select Journal of Foreign Periodical

Literature, 11, 167

"Serenade" (Lowell), 18, 208, 209

Shakespeare, William, 7, 8, 31, 65,

77' 8 5> 93> *3 8 ' 213, 228

Sharpe's London Magazine, 223

Sheet music, 69-73, 157-62

Shelley, Percy Bysshe, 13, 16, 44, 93,

175, 207, 213, 215

Sidney, Sir Philip, 227

Simms, William Gilmore, 92, 108-

09, 226, 230, 239

"Sir Galahad," 117

Sketch Book, The (Irving), 224

"Skipping-Rope, The," 41

"Sleeping Beauty, The," 27, 32, 33,

43, 165, 209, 210

"Sleeping Palace, The," 117, 240

Smith, Alexander, 72, 177, 178, 225,

241, 249

Smith, C. C, 174, 227

Songs and Poems of the South

(Meek), 241

Songs of Our Land and Other

Poems (Hewitt), 240

Songs of Summer (Stoddard), 111,

23 6 -37> 239' 241, 242

"Sonnet" ["But were I loved, as I

desire to be"], 164, 232

"Sonnet LV" ["We are a part of all

we hear and see"] (Simms), 239

"Soul's Creed" (Talley), 237

Southern and Western Magazine, 92,


Southern Literary Gazette, 143, 176,


Southern Literary Journal, 216

Southern Literary Messenger, 32, 46-

47' 53' 54' 63, 71-72, 78, 94, 134,

137-38, 169, 170, 173, 174, 175,

177, 179, 180, 181, 207, 208, 210,

212, 215, 217, 219, 221, 224, 227,

232, 234, 235, 237, 238, 239, 241,

242, 246

Southern Quarterly Review, 79, 92,

108-09, 174, 230, 234

Southey, Robert, 4, 90, 93, 218

Spectator (London), 77, 173, 179,

222, 225, 248

Spedding, James, 125, 164, 170, 210,


Spenser, Edmund, 9, 13, 92

"Splendor Falls on Castle Walls,

The," 71, 72, 160, 175

Sprague, Dwight, 63, 69

"Stanzas" ["Oh! that 'twere pos-

sible"], 131, 170, 171

Stedman, Edmund Clarence, 94, 141,

146, 148, 231, 248, 250

Sterling, John, 50, 206, 214-15, 216

Stoddard, Richard Henry, 15, 84.-85,

94, 107, 111, 112, 115, 118, 122-23,

124, 137, 141, 181, 227, 236-37, 239,




Story, William Wetmore, 105-06,

117, 119, 120, 124, 236, 240, 241-42

Street, Alfred B., 115, 238

Sumner, Charles, 77, 88, 215, 226

"Susannah" (anon.), 25, 209

"Sweet and Low," 71-72, 102, 160-

61, 177, 241

Swift, Jonathan, 7

Swinburne, Algernon Sidney, 229

"Syrens, The" (Lowell), 19

Tacitus, 63

Tait, John R., 243

Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, 171,

176, 216, 218, 219, 228

Talfourd, Thomas Noon, 171, 176

"Talking Oak, The," 42, 117, 240

Talley, Susan Archer, 237

Tamerlane and Other Poems (Poe),

3, 201

Tappan, F. W., 5

Tarbox, Increase N., 174, 226, 228

Tatler (Leigh Hunt), 31, 210

Taylor, Bayard, 44, 62, 77, 90, 94,

106-07, ll8 » 121-22, 124, 126-27,

128, 130, 141, 147, 149, 201, 214,

221, 226, 230-31, 235, 236, 239,

242, 243-44

Taylor, Jeremy, 180, 208

Taylor, Zachary, 143

"Tears, Idle Tears," 61, 70-71, 112,

161-62, 166, 239

Tennyson, Mrs. Alfred (Emily Sell-

wood), 74, 82, 126, 243

Tennyson, Charles, 3, 31, 35, 209,


Tennyson, Hallam, Lord, 127, 173,

211, 224, 226, 227, 228, 229, 245,

247, 248

Tennyson, Lionel, 127

Thackeray, William Makepeace,

126, 128, 244

Thaxter, Levy Lincoln, 9

Theocritus, 61

Theological and Literary Journal

(New York), 136, 247

Thompson, John R., 61, 63, 110,

W^ 8 ' 175. 177> »79» l8l > 2 32, 233,

235, 241, 247

Thompson, Lawrance, 204, 208

Thorwaldsen, Bertel, 204

Thoughts on the Poets (Tucker-

man), 216

"Thy Voice is Heard thro' Rolling

Drums," 71

Ticknor, B. H., 211

Ticknor, George, 84

Ticknor, Mrs. George, 233

Ticknor, William D., 36-38, 57, 58,

75-77' 97> 98-99' 129-30, 147, 152-

57, 211, 217, 219, 220, 225, 232,

233' 234, 245, 250

Timbuctoo, 4, 232

Timrod, Henry, 72-73, 92, 94, 114,

115-16, 124, 230, 238, 239

Tiresias, and Other Poems, 148

Titian, 132

"To , After Reading a Life and

Letters," 154

"To " ["All good things have

not kept aloof"], 210

"To Christopher North," 46

"To E. L., on His Travels in

Greece," 154

"To J. S.," 164, 210

"To My Companions" (Channing),


"To One in Affliction" (Thompson),


"To the Queen," 154

"To the Rev. F. D. Maurice," 130,


To-day: A Boston Literary Journal,

143, 176

Tomlin, John, 219

Townsend, Henry C, 231, 234, 243

Transcendentalism, 5-9, 28, 30, 40,

42, 79, 203, 209-10, 220, 226, 231

Trent, William P., 226, 230

Tribute, The, for 1837, 131, 245

Tuckerman, Frederick Goddard,

126, 128, 134, 142, 144-45' 216, 243,

246, 249

Tuckerman, Henry T., 14, 48, 170

"Two Voices, The," 41, 84, 213

"Ulysses," 36, 42, 96, 101, 104, 113-

*5> 239

Vere, Aubrey de, 173, 223



Victor, O. J., 182, 247

Victoria, Queen, 86, 90, 154

Virginalia (Chivers), 107, 237, 241

Vision of Faery Land and Other

Poems (Gibson), 238, 240

"Vision of Sir Launfal, The"

(Lowell), 117, 240

Voices of the Night (Longfellow),

168, 208

Wallace, William Ross, 114-15, 123

Wallace, William Vincent, 71, 160,


Ward, Samuel, 208, 230

Washington, George, 114, 239

Washington Daily National Intelli-

gencer, 212, 218, 226

"Waves, The" (Taylor), 121-22

Webster, Daniel, 204

Western Messenger, 5, 6, 26-27, 168,


Westminster Review, 174, 205, 216,

217, 248

"What Reck I of the Stars When I"

(Lowell), 22

Wheeler, Charles Stearns, 14, 33-34,

35' 3 6 "3 8 > 45' 52, 210-11, 212, 217-

18, 243

Whewell, William, 84

Whipple, Edwin P., 48, 50, 72, 170,

216, 225

Whitaker, Daniel K., 216

White, Maria (Mrs. J. R. Lowell),

9, 22, 205

Whitman, Walt, 138-39, 179, 247

"Will," 130, 157

Willis, Nathaniel Parker, 58

Willmer, Edward, 206

Willmott, Robert A., 100, 234

Wilson, James Grant, 230, 244

Winthrop, Theodore, 220

Wise, Thomas J., 153, 154, 156, 202,

212, 220, 225, 233, 245, 249

Woodberry, George E., 214, 250

Woodbury, I. B., 70, 72, 160, 161,

224, 241

Woolner, Thomas, 125, 181, 243

Words for the Hour (Howe), 238,


Wordsworth, William, 12, 25, 29, 53,

90* 92, 93' 95' ioi, 114, "5' l 7<>>

177, 204, 207, 209, 213, 215, 217,

232, 235, 239

Yale Literary Magazine, 173, 175,

177, 178, 181, 182, 209, 221, 232,

244, 248

Year's Life, A (Lowell), 13, 14, 18-22,

207, 208




FROM 1827 T0 l858


John Olin Eidson


The University of Georgia Press

Copyright 1943








Two Brothers, Tennyson's earliest work, in 1827, an( ^

closes with the publication of the first of the Idylls of the

King in 1859. ^ traces Tennyson's rise to fame. From 1859

till the coming of the reaction against him soon after his

death, Tennyson was firmly ensconced as the chief Vic-

torian poet.

The largest part of my work has been done in four

places: the Library of Congress, the New York Public Li-

brary, the Harvard College Library, and the Boston Public

Library. To all departments of these libraries I am greatly

indebted for the use of their facilities. Also, the libraries

of Duke University, the University of North Carolina, and

the University of Georgia have rendered much assistance.

Two libraries in which I have spent less time but in which

I found several of the most significant items contained in

this work are the Pierpont Morgan Library of New York

City and the Boston Athenaeum.

The Union Catalogue of the Library of Congress, the

Union Library Catalogue of the Philadelphia Metropol-

itan Area, the Cleveland Regional Union Catalog, and the

Bibliographical Center for Research (Denver, Colorado)

have helped me ably in my search for American editions

and impressions of Tennyson. And I am grateful to the

Houghton Mifflin Company, successors to Ticknor and

Fields, Tennyson's authorized American publishers, for

furnishing me with detailed records of Ticknor and

Fields's editions.



It is impossible for me to name here all of the libraries

and individuals who have contributed to my work, but

some of the contributions cannot be left unacknowledged.

The Henry E. Huntington Library of San Marino, Cal-

ifornia, the Wrenn Library of the University of Texas, and

the Victoria University Library of Toronto, Canada, have

given me valuable material from their large Tennyson col-

lections. Dr. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Dana kindly

allowed me free use of his valuable Longfellow papers in

the Craigie House, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Mr. Edward

Waldo Forbes permitted me to use Emerson's unpublished

journals and the unpublished letters to Emerson owned

by the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association of

Cambridge. Mr. Thomas Franklin Currier of Harvard

University and Mr. Charles E. Goodspeed of Goodspeed's

Book Store, Inc., Boston, have helped me in my gathering

and recording of information concerning American edi-

tions and their sales. Mr. J. Francis Driscoll of Brookline,

Massachusetts, placed at my disposal his enormous collec-

tion of American sheet music. Mr. Clarence S. Brigham,

Director of the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester,

Massachusetts, supervised for me the checking of hundreds

of American literary annuals and gift-books owned by the

Society but not included in any index or catalogue of an-

nuals. Mr. Duncan Burnet of the University of Georgia

Library secured for me through inter-library loan numer-

ous periodicals from all sections of the country. Mr. M.

M. Hoover allowed me the use of his Park Benjamin Col-

lection in the Columbia University Library; and Professor

Oscar Cargill kindly directed me in the use of his unpub-

lished index of American magazines in the New York Uni-

versity Library.

To Professors Paull F. Baum and Clarence Gohdes of

Duke University and Professors Edwin M. Everett and Edd

Winfield Parks, my colleagues at the University of Georgia,


I am grateful for valuable suggestions; and to Professor

Jay B. Hubbell of Duke University I am especially in-

debted for his continual interest and scholarly criticism.

Several research workers have given me valuable as-

sistance by checking periodicals and scanning newspapers

in search of needed items. Miss Annie A. Nunns, Assistant

Superintendent of the Wisconsin Historical Society, Madi-

son, supervised for me the checking of rare periodicals in

the Society's unusually large American collection. Miss

Mary H. Seem scanned numerous periodicals in the Enoch

Pratt Free Library, Baltimore, Maryland. Also, Misses

Anita Fennell and Willene Flanigan, student assistants at

the University of Georgia, and Miss Helen Marie Chew,

of Washington, D. C, have carefully gathered material

from the periodicals.

Finally, I am indebted to the following publishers and

copyright holders for permission to quote from their

books: Mrs. George M. Gould, Atlantic City, New Jersey

(Laura Stedman and George M. Gould, Life and Letters

of Edmund Clarence Stedman); Miss Mildred Howells,

Boston, Massachusetts (William Dean Howells, My Liter-

ary Passions); Mrs. Mary Thacher Higginson's estate, Cam-

bridge, Massachusetts (Letters and Journals of Thomas

Wentworth Higginson); D. Appleton-Century Company

(Hildegarde Hawthorne, The Poet of Craigie House);

A. S. Barnes and Company (R. H. Stoddard, Recollections

Personal and Literary); Thomas Y. Crowell Company

(The Complete Works of Edgar Allan Poe); Alfred A.

Knopf, Inc. (Frederick Goddard Tuckerman, Sonnets);

Cassell and Company, Limited (T. Wemyss Reid, The

Life, Letters, and Friendships of Richard Monckton

Milnes); The Macmillan Company (Alfred, Lord Tenny-

son, A Memoir by His Son and Tennyson and His

Friends); L. C. Page and Company (The Works of Alfred

Tennyson, ed. William J. Rolfe); The University of Wis-


consin Press (J. F. A. Pyre, The Formation of Tennyson's

Style); Yale University Press (Thomas R. Lounsbury, The

Life and Times of Tennyson); and Houghton Mifflin

Company (Journals of Ralph Waldo Emerson; The

Heart of Hawthorne's Journals; Caroline Ticknor, Haw-

thorne and His Publisher; Thomas Wentworth Higgin-

son, Studies in History and Letters; John T. Morse, Jr.,

Life and Letters of Oliver Wendell Holmes; Samuel

Longfellow, Life of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow; The

Complete Writings of James Russell Lowell; Edward

Everett Hale, James Russell Lowell and His Friends;

Horace E. Scudder, James Russell Lowell; Marie Hansen-

Taylor and Horace E. Scudder, Life and Letters of Bayard

Taylor; and Letters of Charles Eliot Norton).

J. O. E.

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